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GMO

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Leslie Erbe

on 17 April 2015

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Transcript of GMO

How & Why?
Benefits
What does GMO stand for?
Genetically Modified Organism
The Opposition
-Most developed nations do not consider GMOs to be safe.

- In more than 60 countries around the world, including Australia, Japan, and all of the countries in the European Union, there are significant restrictions or outright bans on the production and sale of GMOs.

Genetically Modified
an organism whose genome has been altered by the techniques of genetic engineering so
that its DNA contains
one or more genes not
normally found there.
Enviromental Risks
Outline
What is a GMO
The History
The Process
The Benefits
Debunking the Myths
The Actual Concerns
Labeling
Discussion
1994 –
GMOs Hit Grocery Stores
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves the Flavr Savr tomato for sale on grocery store shelves.
The delayed-ripening tomato has a longer shelf life than conventional tomatoes.
1999 –
GMO Food Crops Dominate
Over 100 million acres worldwide are planted with genetically engineered seeds. The marketplace begins embracing GMO technology at an alarming rate.
1973- Invention of the technique used DNA cloning, which allowed genes to be transplanted between different biological species
1974- first genetically modified DNA organism was created - species of bacteria
1865-Gregor Mendel's published his discoveries on the breeding of peas, which became the foundation of modern genetics.
1966-
Marshall Nirenberg & Har Gobind Khorana finished unravelling the genetic code. (50 years ago)
1983 Four separate groups of scientists create GM plants; three groups insert bacterial genes into plants and one inserts a bean gene into a sunflower plant.
1988 Transgenic maize (corn) produced.

First transgenic plant producing a pharmaceutical.

The History
Selective breeding has been practiced since early prehistory

Desired traits chosen and trageted for reproduction

Commonly known and
altered organisms:
wheat
rice
maize
dogs
Speed!
Some European countries and Japan will not buy
our farm products that contain GMO's. We have no
regulations preventing the use of GMO's in our
foods. What do these countries know that we dont?

Step
Step
Rigorous Testing
Step
Step
Finding and Isolating the Gene
Gene Insertion
Vector is transported to the host cell via (plasmid)
Same RE's are used to cut Host DNA
Incorporated into genome at target site
Plants Are Grown
- Grown in controlled chambers
GMOs undergo more testing and quality assurance than any other food on the market
Every seed is examined by the FDA, EPA, and USDA
Tests must be confirmed before entering the food and animal feed supply.
The Unknown
Allergens
GMO's have only been available for 20 years
Lack of any long term studies on GMO effects
The European Commission’s Chief Scientific Advisor-
"There is no substantiated case of any adverse impact on human health, animal health or environmental health, so that’s pretty robust evidence, and I would be confident in saying that there is no more risk in eating GMO food than eating conventionally farmed food."
Out-crossing and Gene Flow
Modified genes being transferred to other non-trageted organisms including plants and animals
-Super Weeds
Gene can only flow only occurs only through compatible species
Discussion Questions
:
1. How long do you think scientists need to conduct GMO tests before they can be sure about the safety?

2. Do you think we’ll be eating 100% GM food one day?

3. What do you suppose the U.S. should do about GMO labeling?

Environmental evaluations
Monarch butterfly study is a false comparison to in the field
Crop not an actual food source

Defense:
Easily Manageable
location
sterility
Truth
:
Gene flow occurs naturally
How?
1
2
3
4
WHY?
Larger yields
Drought resistance
Nutrition
World Hunger
Longer Shelf Life
What is a GMO
The History
The Process
The Benefits
Debunking the Myths
The Actual Concerns
Labeling
Discussion
- One day be better for the environment
- World Hunger
Larger yields
Drought resistance
Nutrition
- Longer Shelf Life
- One day be better for the environment
Leslie Erbe
# 23
Sources
Scientists pick the desired gene or trait they want
Isolate the gene from the donor DNA
Done by RE enzymes (exsition of specific sequences of DNA)
controlled environment
temperature
water
no pathogens
supervised by scientists
Labeling
-The right to know
-A bad stigma
-Non-GMOs are already labeled
-FDA already requires GMOs with allergens or nutritonal differences to be labeled

-Leads to less options in stores
-Religious/Ethical reasons

-Cheap
-Reduces risks
CONS
PROS
Concluded that when two organisms reproduce, their offspring contain a mixture of genes from both parents
Entire DNA sequence decoded from start to finish (3 billion nucleotides)
Key to finding specific genes and their locations
1. Finding
2. Inserting
3. Growing
4. Testing
1. GMOs create new proteins which in turn creates new allergies
Truth:
New proteins have the potential to create new allergies
Defense:

Proteins that cause allergies have common characteristics (binding sites) that can be measured.
Evaluations and testing
-Any plant found with a new antibody is discarded
Truth:

Genes that cause allergies can easily be transferred
Defense:

Testing, approval &
Labeling
Truth:

Biodiversity is easily threatened- both wild plants and wildlife

Defense:
Truth:

Pollution is a major problem that has yet to be solved
Roundup (herbicide) has increased 15 times
Allergic reaction is caused by antibodies binding to specific sites on proteins
2. Existing food allergy proteins being transferred. (peanuts)
Labeling
Direct interaction with the environment
"No amount of experimentation can ever prove me right; a single experiment can prove me wrong. "
-Einstein
Going Back several thousand years...
Ackerman, J., & Richardson, J. (2002, May 1). Food: How Altered? National Geographic, 40-43.

Byrne, P., & Pendell, D. (2015, March 2). Labeling of Genetically Engineered Foods. Retrieved April 2, 2015, from http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/foodnut/09371.html

Core Truths: 10 Common GMO Claims Debunked. (2014, July 11). Retrieved April 2, 2015, from http://www.popsci.com/article/science/core-truths-10-common-gmo-claims-debunked

Do GMOs Mean More Allergies? (n.d.). Retrieved April 2, 2015, from http://www.gmo-compass.org/eng/safety/human_health/192.gmos_mean_more_allergies.html

Newsroom. (n.d.). Retrieved April 2, 2015, from http://www.monsanto.com/newsviews/pages/biotech-safety-gmo-advantages.aspx

Pros & Cons of GMO Foods. (2014, January 13). Retrieved April 2, 2015, from http://www.livestrong.com/article/213053-pros-cons-of-gmo-foods/

Shireen. (2013, March 10). GMO Timeline: A History of Genetically Modified Foods - GMO Inside. Retrieved April 2, 2015, from http://gmoinside.org/gmo-timeline-a-history-genetically-modified-foods/
Pollution-
-Increased herbicides
Biodiversity of plants
Biodiversity- variety of life forms, with complex interactions
Harmful effects on animals and insects
Example:
The Monarch Butterfly
Full transcript