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Rural Detection

A briefly explanation about rural detection. This topic tell us about how to recognize landscape by detecting visible features.
by

zaini mohammad

on 21 December 2013

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Transcript of Rural Detection

Rural Detect on
presented by: Manato Nakamichi and Mohammad Zaini Dahlan
"Do you know, Watson..I must look at everything with reference to my own special object"
OLIVER RACKHAM?
Rackham is a landscape archaeologist, who writes on the subject of the history of the use of the British landscape with considerable vigour and authority, and, when he touches on the subject of conservation
Introduction

Animals and Plants
Woodland
Wood-Pasture
Boundaries and Fields
Trees in Hedgerow and Farmland
Highway
Grassland and Heath
Moorland
Ponds, Dells, and Pits
Marshes, Fens, Rivers, and Seas
Conservation
CONTENTS:
A. Conan Doyle, The Cooper Beeches
He describes, almost poetically; "The England of hamlets, medieval farms in hollows of the hills, lonely moats and great barns in the clay-lands, pollards and ancient trees, cavernous holloways and many footpaths, fords. irregularly-shaped groves with thick hedges colourful with maple, dogwood and spindle - an intricate land of mystery and surprise.,

In contrast with lowland area that indicated by planned countryside.
who is
LOOK = DETECT
discover, identify, investigate the presence or existence of something
Source: http://internationalliving.com/var/ezwebin_site/storage/images/publications/free_e_letters/il_postcards/12_06_07_english/485544-1-eng-US/12_06_07_english.jpg
Source: http://i662.photobucket.com/albums/uu345/everlovelyblog/England-travel-Yorkshire-hchalkley.jpg
Source: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_7TyfwKTQ6nM/SxWVqaHrhfI/AAAAAAAACy4/2ZbbBSqwkHc/s1600/english-countryside.jpg
Source: http://dianemagras.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/englishcountryside.jpg
Animals and Plants
Woodland
Wood-Pasture
Boundaries and Fields
Trees in Hedgerow and Farmland
Highway
Grassland and Heath
Moorland
Ponds, Dells, and Pits
Marshes, Fens, Rivers, and Seas
Conservation
PLEASE
DETECT
LOOK
1000 750 500 250 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000
ANCIENT
ROMAN
MEDIEVAL
Hellenistic
RENNAISSANCE
MODERN
| 750-323 | 323-30 | 30-410 | 410-1350 | 1350-1600 | 1600-1900 |
Year
A TIMELINE OF WESTERN HISTORY
Source: http://www.speakerscornertrust.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/North-Herefordshire-Country.jpg
Source: http://www.cambridgeshire-community.org.uk/z_album/1042.jpg
DETECTION ON SHAPE TO KNOW THE LANDSCAPE
HEREFORDSHIRE and CAMBRIDGESHIRE
Detected as:
lands of hamlets, hollows of hills, moats in claylands, little roads and halloways, irregular shaped, etc.
Detected as:
big valleys, wide views, exposed brick farmhouses, flimsy hawtorn hedges, big and busy road, regular shaped, etc.
regularly-shaped
Planned Countryside
irregularly-shaped
"Ancient Countryside"
VS
regularly-shaped
Planned Countryside
irregularly-shaped
"Ancient Countryside"
LANDSCAPE CHANGING
SHAPE, SPACE, and TIME
human need
efficiency and effectiveness
in space and time
medieval woods
Anglo-Saxon hedges
Ancient hedges
medieval woods
Anglo-Saxon hedges
Ancient hedges
"Isolated Antiquities" or "Fragmented Landscape"
natural
artificial
rural
urban
traditional
modern
2. How to detect rural?
3. Who are the detectors?
4. What are detected?
1. What is rural detection?
5. Why are detected?
Herefordshire
Cambridgeshire
Herefordshire
Cambridgeshire
Herefordshire
Highland of Scotland
"Ancient Countryside"
"Planned Countryside"
Highland of Scothland
The EVIDENCES are needed to support in detecting
POLLEN ANALYSIS
ARCHEOLOGY
"trees as a source of evidence"
EVIDENCES
"tells us about the story of wood"
POLLEN ANALYSIS uses preserved trees or other plants are deposited under soil or water.
LANDSCAPE ARCHEOLOGY uses preserved trees or other plants are deposited on surface of soil or water.
1. Found by Trees analysis
2. Found by Names analysis
3. Found by Landmark analysis
1
2
Some evidences complement the written document
Cambridgeshire was recorded in the Domesday Book as "Grantbridgeshire"
(or rather Grentebrigescire)
(cf the river Granta).
The meaning of name:
3
Sources: http://relief-maps.co.uk/
"The countryside records human default as well as design, and much of it has a life of its own independent of human activity. Trees are not just things that people plant, like gateposts: a friend of mine has cut a good crop of ash trees which have arisen where his predecessor planted pines. The landscape ranges from the almost wholly artificial...to the almost wholly natural."
The name "Hereford" is said to come from the Anglo Saxon "here", an army or formation of soldiers, and the "ford", a place for crossing a river. The Welsh name for Hereford is Henffordd, meaning "old road". And also defined by an animal of a breed of red and white beef cattle.
Surveying by
CHARTERS
defining landscape by walking around the boundaries and
noting features point by point.
Understanding in name's meaning of places, rivers, towns, villages, hamlets, woods, roads, and prehistoric earthworks.
each name has
a special meaning
=
"DOMESDAY BOOK"
William the Conqueror mandates to survey the major features in his new kingdom.

The survey doesn't record minor features such as hedges, trees, road, transport, industry, and far north of England.

However, surprisingly, it records an England about: 35% arable land, 30% pasture, 15% woodland and wood-pasture, and 1% meadow.

"Mental MAP"
The concept of a mental map may refer to a person's point-of-view perception of their area of interaction.
LAND USE
LAND COVER
=
MAP
+
ELY COUCHER BOOK by Bishop Hugo de Northwold (1251) shows landed estates, listing land, named of fields, woods, and meadows, and duties monorial tenants.
ACCOUNTS shows income and expenditure, sales, transportation, purchase, and hire of employee.
COURT ROOLS shows inheritance, highways, hedges, pits, and watercourses.
CLOSE PATENT and LIBERATE ROLLS show forests, feasts, royal gifts, and material and transport for the King's building work.
PLANTS
BOUNDARIES
structures
county
township
vill
town
parish
township
vill
town
parish
township
vill
town
parish
township
vill
town
parish
township
vill
town
parish
township
vill
town
parish
township
vill
town
parish
township
vill
town
parish
township
vill
town
parish
township
vill
town
parish
township
vill
town
parish
township
vill
town
parish
township
vill
town
parish
township
vill
town
parish
township
vill
town
parish
township
vill
town
parish
township
vill
town
parish
England & Wales = Township, Town, or Vill
Ireland = Townland and grouped into baronies
=
COUNTIES
followed by streams, roads, hedges, woodbanks, and so on.
designed by organic or geometric form
BOUNDARIES
functioned as ecological, social, historical, cultural, or spiritual places
Plants provide the primary information and the primary identified evidences.

Rings of tree provide information about the tree's age, and the condition while growing up (pollarding, disease treathment, drainage, etc.)

Environmental changing influences the areas of vegetation. In some areas, the ancient vegetation (tree, shrub, or brush) has disappeared ant in other areas still remain.
MAP and MAPMAKING
1580 (16th centuries):
Accurate mapmaking is appear. Produces large-scale map that shows hedge, hedgerow tree, pond, and identifiable building (not primary used in 17th-18th centuries).

1772-1774 (18th centuries):
Enclosure Acts produces accurate small-scale map (Chapman and Andre's Essex) that shows whole parish, detail forest cover areas (dominant or poor), and fictitious information about conventionalized field boundaries.

1834-1844 (19th centuries):
Ordnance Survey of Ireland produces large-scale map and also in England by Tithe Award Map.

1853-1893 (19th centuries):
England and Wales produces detail map by Ordnance Survey (6-25 inch)

1860-1870 (19th centuries):
The beautiful map is produced that shows detail land use like hut, hedgerow tree, and zenith in Britain.
Manato NAKAMICHI
4th year in Forest Science
300 years ago, does this landscape already exist?
HISTORY and PSEUDO-HISTORY:
The Triumph of Unreason
If people fell (cut down) trees, will the forests die?

"The factoids make pseudo-history"
Don't go to fieldwork
Rely on contemporary document
Copy and paste what scholars have said
Treat animals and plants as ‘environment’
Make it as general as you can
Pretend to have an answer for everything
Pseudo-history is not killed by publishing real history.

Authors confuse history of the countryside with the history of country folk and the history of what people have said about the countryside.
Why the landscape is so productive of factoids?
Fac-toid:
an assumption or speculation that is reported and repeated so often that it becomes accepted as fact.
PSEUDO-HISTORY and HISTORY?
Recipes to make
Pseudo-History
HOW PEOPLE WRITE

Go to fieldwork
Don't rely on contemporary document, search for the real evidence
Ask what scholars have said and find the answer in the fieldwork
Treat animals and plants as actors in the play of fieldwork
Make it as detail as you can
Answer for everything that you know the answer
Recipes to make
History
Let's make a beautiful story, because
The real history of the countryside is more romantic than the romance.
THE CONCLUSION...
"RURAL DETECTION"
"Thank You, Arigatou Gozaimashita, Terima Kasih"
VS
Kyoto University, Tuesday, December 17th, 2013
"Glory to Allah Swt, of knowledge We have none, save what Thou Hast taught us: In truth it is Thou Who art perfect in knowledge and wisdom."

(Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqoroh: 32)
Supervised by: Associate Prof. Fukamachi Katsue
Alhamdulillaah.. All praise be to Allah Swt, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds
(Holy Qur'an, Al-Fatihah: 2)
Full transcript