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Chickering

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Patricia Chastain

on 24 December 2012

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Transcript of Chickering

Chickering's Theory of Identity Development By: Arthur Chickering Developing Purpose Developing Integrity Activity What color are you? And what does this tell you about yourself in relation to Chickering's Theory of Development? Establishing Identity "Development of identity involves:
(1) comfort with body and appearance,
(2) comfort with gender and sexual orientation, (3) sense of self in a social, historical, and cultural context,
(4) clarification of self-concept through roles and life-style ,
(5) sense of self in response to feedback from valued others,
(6) self-acceptance and self-esteem, and
(7) personal stability and integration.
A solid sense of self emerges, and it becomes more apparent that there is an I who coordinates the facets of personality, who “owns” the house of self and is comfortable in all of its rooms." Moving through autonomy toward interdependence Key development: students are learning to function with self sufficiency – less bound by others opinions Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships Involves tolerance/ appreciation of differences
The ability to respond to people in their own right rather than as a stereotype
Respecting differences in close friends and acquaintances
Bias is reduced and diversity is embraced and enjoyed Managing Emotions "In this vector, students become more aware of their emotions. Awareness of emotions “increases when students learn to identify and accept feelings as normal reactions to life experience [and] when they can understand and amend outdated assumptions that amplify negative feelings” (Chickering & Reisser, 1993). Chickering suggests that students enter college “loaded with emotional baggage” and only enter this vector when they learn these “appropriate channels for releasing irritations before they explode, dealing with fears before they immobilize, and healing emotional wounds before they infect other friendships” (pp. 46, 83). Arthur Chickering Developing Competence This vector includes developing intellectual, physical and manual, and interpersonal competence. Individuals acquire skills that give them the ability to handle positive and negative situations that arise in life and develop a sense of confidence that comes from surviving those situations. Intellectually, individuals expand their interests and improve their skills in critical thinking and reflective judgment, objectively analyzing and drawing conclusions from data, generating questions and answers, and communicating proposals and opinions. The Seven Vectors of Identification Chickering studied college students between their sophomore and senior years from 1959-1969 and based his studies into seven vectors of student development. Arthur Chickering Biography: B.A. in Modern Comparative Literature from Wesleyan University (1950)

M.A. in English Education from Harvard University (1951)

Ph.D. in School Psychology from Columbia University

Chickering was formerly employed at Goddard College as a researcher in student affairs.

Arthur Chickering is presently still employed as a Special Assistant to the President at Goddard College. Awards: E.F. Lindquist Award: for studies of college impacts on student development

Outstanding Service Award from the National Association of Student Personnel

Distinguished Contribution to Knowledge Award

The Distinguished Service Award from the Council for Independent Colleges

The Howard R. Bowen Distinguished Career Award for the Association for the Study of Higher Education: extraordinary contributions to research, leadership, and service Works: Education and Identity

Communting Versus Resident Students: Overcoming Educational Inequalities of Living Off Campus

The Modern American College: Responding to the new Realities of Diverse Students and a Changing Society

Improving Higher Education Environments for Adults: Responsive Programs and Services from Entry to Departure

Getting the Most Out of College "Humanizing values: shifting away from automatic application of uncompromising beliefs and using principled thinking in balancing one's own self-interest with the interest in one's fellow human beings" Literal views of rules shifts to a more relative view.

Reformulation of rules set by parents using ideal altering experiences that impact the student's perception of rigid rules.

This concept is also called "liberalization of the superego" and "enlightenment of conscience" "Personalizing values: consciously affirming core values and beliefs while respecting other points of view" Students come to school with acquired perceptions on what is right, wrong true, false, good, bad, important, and unimportant.
Perceptions are formed by family, school, media, and other influences, but the values are carried out even when the influences are absent. Swaying from taught values enhances anxiety and fear of discovery and punishment. These values are often subconscious; due to this, they can be very hard to explain.

Humanizing of values, however, allows students discard or retain values depending on what is suitable for a certain situation. Values retained after humanizing are personalized values.

The values selected are those that are important in order to suit the life, including the conditions of living, of the individual.
"Many college students are all dressed up and do not know where they want to go. They have energy but no destination. While they may have clarified who they are and where they came from, they have only the vaguest notion of who they want to be. For large numbers of college students, the purpose of college is to qualify them for a good job, not to help them build skills applicable in the widest variety of life experiences; it is to ensure a comfortable life-style, not to broaden their knowledge base, find a philosophy of life, or become a lifelong learner."

"Developing purpose entails an increasing ability to be intentional, to asses interests and options, to clarify goals, to make plans, and to persist despite obstacles. It requires formulating plans for action and a set of priorities that integrate three major elements: (1) vocational plans and aspirations, (2) personal interests, and (3) interpersonal and family commitments." "Development of Congruence: achievement of behavior consistence with personal values" Internal debate has slowed down or ceased, and the student is able to responded in a determined manner once a situation and consequences are understood in whole. One is free from having to be reassured with affection/approval

Begins with separation from parents and goes through reliance on peers

One starts to depend less on reassurance when the need for reassurance and affirmation from others diminishes

A person is willing to risk friendships/social status in order to pursue strong interests and/or stand on their personal convictions Emotional Independence: The ability to organize activities and solve problems in a self-directed way/ the ability to be mobile

This is developing the self that thinks critically and independently

Can translate ideas into focused action

One learns to get from one place to the next without help

One can find their own resources Instrumental Independence: Greater Autonomy: Enables healthier interdependence

Relationships with parents are reevaluated

Relationships now based on equality

Less consciously chosen peer bonds Freedom from narcissism

Ability to choose healthy relationships

Make lasting commitments based on honesty

More accepting of flaws and more appreciative of assets

More selective in choosing nurturing relationships

Long lasting relationships (endure crisis, distance, separation) Capacity for Healthy Intimacy Increases "Establishing identity also includes reflecting on one’s family of origin and ethnic heritage, defining self as a part of a religious or cultural tradition, and seeing self within a social and historical context. It involves finding roles and styles at work, at play, and at home that are genuine expressions of self and that further sharpen self-definition. It involves gaining a sense of how one is seen and evaluated by others." "Arthur W. Chickering." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Oct. 2012. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_W._Chickering>. "Arthur W. Chickering." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Oct. 2012. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_W._Chickering>. "Arthur W. Chickering." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Oct. 2012. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_W._Chickering>. "Seven Vectors by Arthur Chickering." Seven Vectors by Arthur Chickering. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://www.cabrini.edu/communications/ProfDev/cardevChickering.html>. "Seven Vectors by Arthur Chickering." Seven Vectors by Arthur Chickering. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://www.cabrini.edu/communications/ProfDev/cardevChickering.html>. "Seven Vectors by Arthur Chickering." Seven Vectors by Arthur Chickering. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://www.cabrini.edu/communications/ProfDev/cardevChickering.html>. "Seven Vectors by Arthur Chickering." Seven Vectors by Arthur Chickering. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://www.cabrini.edu/communications/ProfDev/cardevChickering.html>. "Seven Vectors by Arthur Chickering." Seven Vectors by Arthur Chickering. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://www.cabrini.edu/communications/ProfDev/cardevChickering.html>. "Seven Vectors by Arthur Chickering." Seven Vectors by Arthur Chickering. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://www.cabrini.edu/communications/ProfDev/cardevChickering.html>. "Seven Vectors by Arthur Chickering." Seven Vectors by Arthur Chickering. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://www.cabrini.edu/communications/ProfDev/cardevChickering.html>. "Seven Vectors by Arthur Chickering." Seven Vectors by Arthur Chickering. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://www.cabrini.edu/communications/ProfDev/cardevChickering.html>. "Seven Vectors by Arthur Chickering." Seven Vectors by Arthur Chickering. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://www.cabrini.edu/communications/ProfDev/cardevChickering.html>. Chickering's Theory of Identity Development." • The Seven Vectors. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. <http://edld579douglasopensource.tumblr.com/post/564783815/the-seven-vectors>. Chickering's Theory of Identity Development." • The Seven Vectors. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. <http://edld579douglasopensource.tumblr.com/post/564783815/the-seven-vectors>. Chickering's Theory of Identity Development." • The Seven Vectors. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. <http://edld579douglasopensource.tumblr.com/post/564783815/the-seven-vectors>. "SChickering's Theory of Identity Development." • The Seven Vectors. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. <http://edld579douglasopensource.tumblr.com/post/564783815/the-seven-vectors>. "Chickering's Theory of Identity Development." • The Seven Vectors. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. <http://edld579douglasopensource.tumblr.com/post/564783815/the-seven-vectors>. :D
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