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The Mexican War on Drugs
Transcript of The Mexican War on Drugs
Effects and Consequences
Questions, Suggestions, & Sources
Attempts at Peace
The Mexican War on Drugs
1909: Opium Exclusion Act of 1909
1919: Prohibition Act of 1919 is enacted in the U.S.
1920: The 18th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution is enacted; prohibition begins & Mexico bans production and sale of cannabis
1923: Mexico bans the import of all narcotics and limits export of alcohol into the U.S.
1929: Juan N. Guerra begins smuggling alcohol into the United States
1933: Prohibition is repealed in the United States
1937: The Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 is passed in the United States
Early 20th Century
1920's and 30's
1971: U.S. President Richard Nixon declares a "War on Drugs"
Smuggling of cannabis, cocaine, heroin, and other narcotics into the U.S. reaches historical popularity
Pablo Escobar becomes the main exporter of cocaine from Colombia, through Mexico
Miguel Angel Felix Gallardo forms the Guadalajara Cartel and grows to control almost all of the trafficking routes along the U.S.-Mexico border
1985: Felix Gallardo orders the murder of undercover DEA agent, Enrique Camarena
The U.S. becomes highly involved, disbands the Guadalajara Cartel, Gallardo divides his control to different areas forming independent cartels; Smuggling shifted into Mexico
Cartels remained successful and were able to bribe Mexican law enforcement to continue producing and smuggling illegal substances, increasing government corruption
2006: Mexican President Felipe Calderón launches his own "War on Drugs" ; deploys 6,500 soldiers to Michoacán to combat drug traffickers
Government relies on police officers with little training to combat cartels, pursue, and kill
Military deployed to fight drug trafficking:
2000-06: 19,293 soldiers
2006: 45,000 soldiers
Military clashes with local law enforcement was common
Present prohibition of cannabis and criminalization of cocaine, heroin, and other narcotics
U.S. Federal Law prohibits the production, sale, and distribution of marijuana
U.S. firearm laws and loopholes allow guns to be sold on the black market and enter Mexican cartels
"[Mexico] live[s] next to the world's largest drug consumer, and all the world wants to sell them drugs through our door and our window. And we live next to the world's largest arms seller, which is supplying the criminals" (Calderón)
La Familia Michoacana
Since 2007, around 200,000 people have been murdered and an additional 28,000 have gone missing
Rates of torture by law enforcement officials grew 600% from 2003-2013
Government corruption often aids cartels and illegal trade
Rates of other violent crime including kidnapping and extortion rose as well
Local towns have taken to forming vigilante groups to protect themselves
U.S. has given a total of $1.5 billion since 2008
As Mexico funds its drug war, its economy weakens
President Felipe Calderón
President Calderon's attempts at cracking down on the illegal drug trade, essentially backfired, inciting more violence and allowing government corruption
The Calderon Administration has been somewhat successful in tracking down and capturing major players in illegal drug and weapon trades
President Peña Nieto
Nieto ran on a campaign platform that he would end violence in Mexico
Since taking office, his attempts at reform have done little to solve issues of nonviolence and government corruption
Legalization and Decriminalization
1. Legalize and tax the production and distribution of cannabis in the U.S. and Mexico
2. Decriminalize cocaine, heroin, and other narcotics in the U.S. and Mexico
U.S. Firearm Reform
1. Ban the production and sale of semi automatic weapons in the United States
2. Increase measures for obtaining a gun legally
Demilitarization of Mexican Police Force
1. Allocate funding for longer and more thorough police training in Mexico
2. Cease the over-policing of poor areas
Ferreras, Jesse. "A Drug War Kills Economies Just Like It Kills People: Report." The Huffington Post. The Huffington Post, 03 May 2016. Web. 25 Mar. 2017.
Grayson, George W. The Impact of President Felipe CalderoÌn's War on Drugs on the Armed Forces: The Prospects for Mexico's "militarization" and Bilateral Relations. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, 2013. Print.
Lakhani, Nina. "Mexico's War on Drugs: What Has It Achieved and How Is the US Involved?" The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 08 Dec. 2016. Web. 25 Mar. 2017.
"Mexico Drug War Fast Facts." CNN. Cable News Network, 19 Mar. 2017. Web. 25 Mar. 2017.
Watt, Peter, and Roberto Zepeda. Drug War Mexico: Politics, Neoliberalism and Violence in the New Narcoeconomy. London: Zed, 2012. Print.
Woody, Christopher. "Narconomics: 'The Real Drugs Millionaires Are Right Here in the United States'." Business Insider. Business Insider, 16 Mar. 2016. Web. 25 Mar. 2017.