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Analysis Latin America
Transcript of Analysis Latin America
Paulina Alzati A01223295
Marlene Cardoso A01223730
Daniela Alejandra Pérez A01224210 REGIONAL CONFLICT PRESENTATION Regional scenarios class, group 6
Professor Anuar Reza
Monday, october 8, 2012 REGION: Latin America
CONFLICT: Drug trafficking
Illegitimacy of Colombian and Mexican governments HISTORICAL
stakeholders State Illegal
groups Nations IGO March 1982 October 1986 Anti-Drug Abuse Act in which
United States invested $1.7 billion to fight the "drug war". 1988 George H.W. Bush tells Salinas that he must demonstrate that Mexico is supporting the "fight against drugs." 1989 1991- December1993 1994 December 11, 2006 Stakeholder: Colombia
Level of influence: 5 Stakeholder: "Los Zetas"
Category: Non-legal group
Level of influence: 5 Stakeholder: Mexican civil society
Category: Nation or civil society
Level of influence: 4 Stakeholder: Colombian civil society
Category: Nation or civil society
Level of influence: 4 Stakeholder: United States of America
Level of influence: 5 I N T E R E S T S I N T E R E S T S P E R S P E C T I V E S R E S O U R C E S R E S O U R C E S I N T E R V E N T I O N S Money Traffickers pay to planters between $100 and $150 per day for cultivating marijuana and poppy. Impunity
Society is aware that the capacity of the cartels to intimidate, through force and terrorism, has imposed a regulation frame in which they enjoy the advantages that the deficient judicial system provides them.
USA has stigmatized Colombia as a threat to its internal security.
George Bush qualified drug trafficking as "the main United State's enemy" Money fluctuations of drug in Colombia have generated great inflationary pressure, specially in Medellín, Cali, Barranquilla and Bogotá, where drug traffickers are stronger.
It is not possible to talk about a "narco-economy" in Colombia; however, it is evident that drug business provides Colombian Economy important resources. The administration in Colombia, in charge of Andrés Pastrana, has brought by, great expectatives for the country. The most important are: the eradication of drug relations with USA, and the no-stigmatization in front of the international community.
The main objective of Colombia in its war against drugs, is to combat the drug terrorism.
Police comander, General Rosse José Serrano Cadena, announced that Colombian Police has a fumigation campaign in south Bolívar, specially at San Lucas Mountanis, in order to end with the drug crops that exist there.
In the 80's, colombian authorities started a frontal political war aganist drug traffickers; however, it never stoped, and neither its violence did. When the drug trafficking combat started in Colombia, 50% of the anti-drugs operations were stoped, due to the fact that USA government immobilized 36 helicopters UH-1H. There are many political analyst, who support the idea that the american focusing on the anti-drug policy is not only destinated to fail, but also benefits the same activity that is attacking. Last february, the responsible of the anti-drug war in the USA, Barry McCaffrey, informed that in 1996, american citizens spent $49, 000 million in drugs, form which $31,000 million corresponded to cocaine.
Actions destined to the control, and gradual reduction of drug trafficking in the region, have been, until now, eminently "cyclical" and represive.
The above means that they do not have any long-rage structural transformation programs. During Calderon's presidency, the state has invested $106 billion (pesos) in the security and justice strategy and $77 billion more in the national security issue. According to the Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), Mexico is ranked eighth worldwide for impunity index. Dubious elections Between 1880 and 1920 Chinese people were brought to the city of Badiraguato (Sinaloa). From Fox administration to Calderon administration government spending on security grew 78% Since the Porfirio Diaz regime opium was produced in the country and later sent to the U.S. (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr Sinaloa Gold Triangle
1970 Chihuahua Durango In 1984 the Medellin cartel and the Guadalajara cartel met in Atlanta to create the new Mexican route Only 3% of murderers are punished with jail. Geography Climatic conditions In 1941, the first action is undertaken against marihuana growers. Before 2006 drug trafficking produced 10 billion dollars According to CNN 45% of Mexicans believe the government has made progress in its fight against drug trafficking.
83% of Mexicans also support Calderón strategy to fight organized crime. Control the Colombian drug trafficking routes that sent almost 500 tonnes per year to Europe and United States. In 2009, this cartel was supported by a 1.200 men army.
And also supported by a Mexican cartel: Cartel de Sinaloa. Stakeholder: Mexico
Level of influence: 5 Stakeholder: "Cartel del Norte del Valle"
Category: Non-legal group
Level of influence: 5 They have made an alliance with the South Pacific cartel (Beltran Leyva Cartel) I N T E R E S T S P E R S P E C T I V E S P E R S P E C T I V E S P E R S P E C T I V E S I N T E R V E N T I O N S R E S O U R C E S P E R S P E C T I V E S P E R S P E C T I V E S I N T E R V E N T I O N S R E S O U R C E S I N T E R V E N T I O N S I N T E R V E N T I O N S R E S O U R C E S I N T E R V E N T I O N S I N T E R V E N T I O N S R E S O U R C E S I N T E R E S T S P E R S P E C T I V E S I N T E R E S T S Used to be leaded by Wilber Varela and was related with Oscar Naranjo Trujillo (New security general in Mexico, chosen by EPN). The zetas are ex- soldiers who defected from the Special Forces Airmobile Group (GAFE) and Special Forces Amphibious Group (GANFE) Also, Varela created a narco paramilitary group named “Los Ratrojos” who take care of fields and laboratories in the jungle. "School of the Americas" Massacre of 72 migrants Production In 2004, this "cartel" supplied 70% of the U.S. cocaine demand, crossing Mexico. According to the book " The Executoner's men", the zetas have alliances with US Customs and Border Protection
Also, if a municipal president works to the Zetas, he will earn 15 thousand dollars per month
In the last 2 years, Valera’s successors have had meetings with “Cartel de Sinaloa” in Guatemala and Panama, and invest in Mexico – Colombia drug trafficking They fight against the alliance between the Gulf, Sinaloa and the "Familia Michoacana" cartels.
The main purpose of the Zetas is to create a parallel government. Their incomes are: 50% 10-15% (Methamphetamine and heroin) 5% Undocumented traffic Sovereignty
Felipe Carlderón government wants to eliminate drug trafficking and production with a social plan named “Plan de los Cuatro ejes”. Drug trafficking The Zetas Cartel
del Norte del Valle Mexico Colombia USA Mexican civil society Colombian civil society According to the Ministery of Public Security, there have been 60,420 deaths due to drug trafficking. Centrifugal Forces Centripetal Forces I N F L U E N C E R E S O U R C E S Mexican government
government Second decade Firt decade Third decade Solutions USA
"Zetas" Mexican nation
Colombian nation "Death range has increased by applying 'Operación limpieza'" "Operación limpieza" Tranparency Act Mexican citizens claimed that number of deaths and violence decrease, also want to leave the country if the deaths do not decrease. "Cartel del
Norte del Valle" Mérida Initiative
In 2011, the writer Javier Sicilia leaded a movement with citizen that ask for peace and justice. Maximum exports Act 1765 weapons U.S. consumes 41% of the international cocaine market! Social conditions that Colombia has, for being chosen as a drug industry location: Illegitimacy and weakness of the State
Human values lost
Inclination to solve problems violently
Drug trafficking has had a great inflience of everyday's life, which affects the language, appearance, costumes, ethics an moral. The above has produced a cultural phenomenon that affects every social sector. Terrorism, corruption, inflitration of security forces and control organisms, and armament have generated an exagerated spent, which disctracts resources that should be destined to the social development of the country. Victims' associations led 945 social struggles between 1975 and 2010, but 764 shares (80%) were conducted during the last decade. I N T E R E S T S I N T E R E S T S The state must have a record of the number of victims. R E S O U R C E S The creation of a National Council for Public Security and Civilian Police Audit. References Newspaper article
Servín, Fernando Carmacho. "Legalizar Las Drogas, Medida útil Para Reducir La Violencia, Afirman En Foro." La Jornada 13 Nov. 2011: 13. Print.
Arsenault, Christ. "Mexican Official: CIA 'manages' Drug Trade." Aljazeera 24 July 2012: n. pag. Print.
Comunidad Latina De Estudiantes De Negocios. "EL NARCOTRÁFICO EN COLOMBIA." Gestiopolis.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Oct. 2012. <http://www.gestiopolis.com/recursos/documentos/fulldocs/eco/narcotraficolombia.htm>.
"Government of Canada's Defense of Monopoly Interests." Agenda of the Harper Government. Editor@cpcml.ca, n.d. Web. 08 Oct. 2012. <http://www.cpcml.ca/Tmlw2011/W410082.HTM>.
"Office of National Drug Control Policy | The White House." Office of National Drug Control Policy | The White House. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Oct. 2012. <http://www.whitehouse.gov/ondcp>.
Rangel, Carlos Angel. "La Sociedad Colombiana Y Los Problemas Del Narcotráfico."Revista Colombiana Internacional June 1995: 39-45. Colombia Internacional. Web. 8 Oct. 2012.