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Indonesian Riparian System

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Adi Abyoga

on 16 January 2018

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Transcript of Indonesian Riparian System

Content
Introduction to Physical System
Floodplain in Java Island -River Brantas Catchment
Anthropogenic Factors
Disturbances
Fauna and Flora
Conclusion

Introduction to Physical System
Geographical, Climatic, and Geological setting
Java Floodplain - Brantas Catchment
Particularly in Java
Disturbances
Fauna and Flora
Bioindication
Anthropogenic Factors
Why is there such differences between the two flood events?
Climatic Setting
0 latitude : maximum solar irradiation
Tropical country : solar potential of 1400 -2200 kWh/m2
3 different tropical climates : Af (Rainforest), Am (Monsoon), Aw (Savanna)
Indonesian Floodplain - Brantas Catchment
Geological Setting
Indonesia : Pacific Ring of Fire
Sunda Megathrust : Subduction zone between Eurasian and Indo-Australian Plates
Java Islands : 38 Mountains
Geographical Setting
6N - 11S la and 95 - 143E lo
Located between two major oceans (Pacific and Indian) and Continents (Asia and Australia)
Map of the location
Brantas catchment in East Java, Indonesia between 110030’ and 112*55’ E and 7*01’ and 8*15’ S
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Catchment Characteristic
Total area of 11.800 km2 (Second largest)
Covers 13 regencies and 6 cities, total population of 15 million (2000) and density of 1250 people per km2
Main river : Brantas, longitudinal length of 320 km
Stream ordering by strahler : 5th order stream (Brantas), 80% of the streams are 1st order (headwater)
Two active volcanoes : Semeru (3,676 masl) and Kelud (1,724 masl). SIlt load was found to be 1.3 kg per m3.
Upper catchment : sub-catchment Sumber Brantas (spring)
Average annual rainfall reached around 2000 mm (taken from 40 raingauges along the river) which mostly falls during the wet season
Water Potential : 12 billion m3 annually
Geology of Brantas River and soil settings
Geomorphology
Morphology of the catchment : elongated (Rc = 0.38), primarily controlled by geologic structure (correct)
Average slope 0-2 % (exhibits 47.6 % of total area)
Geological features : Mostly volcanic rocks in the upper catchment and near mountainous area, and alluvium in the lower catchment
Evolution through time : mostly formed by the volcanic activities in the past era, which has also been signified by the sedimentation in different stretch of the river
There has been record about changing course of the river by an old 'Kalagyan' inscription dating back to 1037 in Airlangga Kingdom
Upper catchment
Middle Catchment
Lower Catchment
United Nations. (2007, October 24). UN Map of Indonesia.
SolarGIS © 2012 GeoModel Solar. (2014, September 1). Solar Radiation Map: Global Horizontal Irradiation Map of South and Southeast Asia, SolarGIS.
Zifan, A. (2016, February 20). Indonesia map of Köppen climate classification.
Mohtadi, M., Oppo, W., Steinke, S., Stuut, J., R., D. P., Hebbeln, D., & Lückge, A. (2011, June 17). Glacial to Holocene swings of the Australian–Indonesian monsoon. Nature Geoscience, 4, 540-544. doi:10.1038/ngeo1209
World Weather and Climate Information. (2016). Average Monthly Weather in Jakarta, Indonesia. Retrieved June 11, 2017, from www.weather-and-climate.com: https://weather-and-climate.com/average-monthly-Rainfall-Temperature-Sunshine,Jakarta,Indonesia
Eccles, D. (2009, February 11). Pacific Ring of Fire.
Gaba, E. (2009, November 6). Detailed map in English showing the tectonic plates with their movement vectors, with label added for Sunda megathrust. Retrieved June 11, 2017, from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Plate_setting_Sunda_megathrust.png
Whitten, T., Soeriaatmadja, R., & Afiff, S. (1996). The Ecology of Java and Bali. Jakarta: Oey, E.
Topinka, L. (2001). Major volcanoes of Indonesia, with eruptions since 1900 AD.
Geology.com. (2007). World Physical Map. Retrieved June 11, 2017, from Geology.com: http://geology.com/world/world-map.shtml
United Nations. (2007, October 24). UN Map of Indonesia.
Whitten, T., Soeriaatmadja, R., & Afiff, S. (1996). The Ecology of Java and Bali. Jakarta: Oey, E.
Ramu, K. (2004). Brantas River Basin Case Study Indonesia. World Bank.
BPDASHL (Balai Pengelolaan DAS dan Hutan Lindung). (2016, Mei 26). Peta Sub DAS SWP Brantas. Jakarta.
Aldrian, E., & Djamil, Y. (2006, June 1). Long Term Rainfall Trend of The Brantas Catchment Area, East Java. Indonesian Journal of Geography, 38(1), 26-40.
Tantomi, I. (2015, February 28). Nasib Pilu Hulu Sungai Brantas. Malang. Retrieved June 11, 2017, from https://iwantantomi.com/2015/02/28/hulu-sungai-berantas-malang-nasibmu-malang-kotamu/
Tantomi, I. (2015, February 28). Nasib Pilu Hulu Sungai Brantas. Malang. Retrieved June 11, 2017, from https://iwantantomi.com/2015/02/28/hulu-sungai-berantas-malang-nasibmu-malang-kotamu/
greeners.co. (2013, April 15). Susur Sungai Brantas, Sahabat Sungai Indonesia Observasi Ekologi Kritis DAS Brantas. Malang. Retrieved June 11, 2017, from http://www.greeners.co/berita/susur-sungai-brantas-sahabat-sungai-indonesia-observasi-ekologi-kritis-das-brantas/
Djatmiko, W. (2014, July 22). Brantas river passing Kediri City. Retrieved June 11, 2017, from https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berkas:Brantas_140722-44842_kdi.JPG
Priyandikawardhana, D. (2012, March 27). Surabaya Skyline from Kali Mas. Surabaya. Retrieved June 11, 2017, from http://www.panoramio.com/photo/69191134
BPDASHL (Balai Pengelolaan DAS dan Hutan Lindung). (2016, Mei 26). Peta Sub DAS SWP Brantas. Jakarta.
Alluvium
Andesit, Pleistocene (limestone, volcanic and sedimentary)
Old Volcanic Rocks
BAPPENAS. (2012). Analisa Perubahan Penggunaan Lahan di Ekosistem DAS Dalam Menunjang Ketahanan Air dan Ketahanan Pangan. Jakarta: Direktorat Kehutanan dan Konservasi Sumber Daya Air.
Flood Events 1976, 2002
Omachi, T., & Musiake, K. (2004). Changes of Runoff Mechanisms of the Brantas River Over the Past 30 Years. The 2nd APHW Conference and 1st AOGS (pp. 1-8). Fukushima: Fukushima University.
1976
March 1976 from 9th - 13th March
Rainfall of 120mm
Riverbed condition was high and floodwater was retarded in many places
In Jeli, the discharge was found to be around 900 m3/s
2002
January 2002
Two rainfall events in upstream 130 mm and downstream 100 mm
Major damages to Surabaya
In Jeli, discharge was found to be more or less 1600 m3/s
Comparison 1976 vs 2002
1. In Upstream part of the catchment, deforestation has been significantly increasing
How is it noticeable?
Desk Research and Remote sensing!
Satellite images from Landsat archives, analyzed using Erdas Imagine and ArcMap
Study Location : Sumberbrantas Subcatchment
Landsat Analysis - Visual Check and NDVI
Widianto, Suprayogo, D., Sudarto, & Lestariningsih, I. (2010). Implementasi Kaji Cepat Hidrologi (RHA) di Hulu DAS Brantas, Jawa Timur. Working Paper nr. 121. Bogor: World Agroforestry Centre . doi:10.5716/WP10338.PDF.
Landsat 5, acquisition date : 08/07/1994, edited by : Adi Seno Abyoga on 12/06/2017
Landsat 7, acquisition date : 01/09/2004, edited by : Adi Seno Abyoga on 12/06/2017
Landsat 7, acquisition date : 05/06/2017, edited by : Adi Seno Abyoga on 12/06/2017
NDVI Analysis edited in ArcMap and Erdas
Landsat 5, acquisition date : 08/07/1994, edited by : Adi Seno Abyoga on 12/06/2017
Landsat 7, acquisition date : 01/09/2004, edited by : Adi Seno Abyoga on 12/06/2017
Landsat 7, acquisition date : 05/06/2017, edited by : Adi Seno Abyoga on 12/06/2017
Desk Research
Widianto, Suprayogo, D., Sudarto, & Lestariningsih, I. (2010). Implementasi Kaji Cepat Hidrologi (RHA) di Hulu DAS Brantas, Jawa Timur. Working Paper nr. 121. Bogor: World Agroforestry Centre . doi:10.5716/WP10338.PDF.
BAPPENAS. (2012). Analisa Perubahan Penggunaan Lahan di Ekosistem DAS Dalam Menunjang Ketahanan Air dan Ketahanan Pangan. Jakarta: Direktorat Kehutanan dan Konservasi Sumber Daya Air.
2. Sand mining in middle reach of the catchment
middle reach of the catchment for sand mining
3. Man-made structures such as dams throughout the whole catchment area
Flora
Rahardjanto, A., Kusnoputranto, H., Sutjiningsih, D., & Seda, F. (2015). Simple Method to Evaluate of River Quality based on Riparian Vegetation Bioindicator. Research Journal of Science and IT Management, 4(5), 25-35.
mostly small plants, shrubs, grasses
Eupatorium riparium is considered invasive and non-native in Brantas catchment
most trees are located in the Arboretrum Sumber Brantas, not directly in the floodplain
authors mentioned bioindicator methods, IVI index is used to see the importance of vegetation based on parameters
the more diversity it has, the better quality of water in Brantas catchment
Based on authors, diversity in Sumber Brantas is still considered good
Arboretrum - Flora conservation
O point of Brantas Catchment
One of restoration efforts
halomalang.com. (2017, January 3). Melihat Koleksi Pohon Langka di Titik Nol Sungai Brantas. Malang: halomalang.com. Retrieved June 14, 2017, from http://halomalang.com/serba-serbi/melihat-koleksi-pohon-langka-di-titik-nol-sungai-brantas-1
Fauna
Fishes and Collembola community
Types of Fish in Brantas Catchment
Originally, there were many species of fish in Brantas catchment
The record was as old as 18th century since Dutch colonial era
However, recently 6 species have been found extinct.
Others have been found to reverse its gender due to pollution from contraceptive pills
Reuvens, C. (1894). Fishes From East Java. Leiden: Leiden Museum.
Kompas. (18. July 2011). 6 Spesies Ikan di Sungai Brantas Hilang. (G. Wadrianto, Hrsg.) Surabaya: Kompas. Abgerufen am 14. June 2017 von http://regional.kompas.com/read/2011/07/18/21395570/6.Spesies.Ikan.di.Sungai.Brantas.Hilang
Mahbubillah, A. (2012, May 12). PERUBAHAN JENIS KELAMIN PADA IKAN DI KALI BRANTAS. Retrieved June 11, 2017, from Bionotes703: https://bionotes703.wordpress.com/2012/05/12/perubahan-jenis-kelamin-pada-ikan-di-kali-brantas/
Surya.co.id. (2011, July 13). Sensus Ikan Ecoton-Jasa Tirta – Minum Pil KB, Ikan Jantan Jadi Betina. Surabaya. Retrieved June 11, 2017
Barbus javanicus
By Published by Zoologische Mededelingen, at http://www.zoologischemededelingen.nl . Creative commons license published on main page. - An illustrated translation of Bleeker’s Fishes of the Indian Archipelago Part II Cyprini., http://www.zoologischemededelingen.nl/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=zoomed;sid=11d45d33357f37ab55ae41a2924c1f8c;rgn=main;idno=m8601a01;view=text, CC BY 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=22664211
Collembola community
Hexapoda - small creatures like insects (but not insects) with size less than 6 mm
Was used to measure the land use change and adaptability of organisms to monoculture and use of pesticides in agricultural area
Detritivores/microbivores
Cryptopygus thermophilus
http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/Object/132214
Conclusion
Araucaria Angustifolia (Pine)
Schimawallichii (Puspa)
Engelhardia spicata
Eupatorium inulifolium
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