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Chapter 10

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Phillip S

on 13 April 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 10

What is Race? What is Ethnicity?
How are they Sociologically significant?
What are the different Sociological Perspectives on Race Relations?

Race & Ethnicity
What is Ethnicity?
individuals who are believed to share common characteristics that differentiate them from the other collectives in a society
Response
Do you feel like a part of a particular ethnic group?
What is Race?
"Race" gets used in many different context: skin color, religion, nationality, species
Most Social Scientists dispute biological race as a meaningful concept

Race is predominantly a socially constructed reality that is given a large amount of social significance
Ethnic group-a collection of people distinguished, by others or by themselves, primarily on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics (language, religion, national origin, etc.)
Five Main Characteristics that ethnic groups often share
1) unique cultural traits (language, clothing, holidays)
2) a sense of community
3) a feeling of ethnocentrism
4) ascribed membership from birth
5) territoriality (the tendency to occupy a distinct geographic area)
YES
What aspects of your life tie you to that group?
NO
Why do you feel as though you don't belong to an ethnic group?
How are Race/Ethnicity Sociologically significant?
The concepts take on significance due to how individuals act in terms of them
Theories of Prejudice
"
frustration-aggression hypothesis
"-people who are frustrated in their efforts to achieve a highly desired goal will respond with a pattern of aggression toward others (creates
"scapegoats"
)

Symbolic Interactionist approach-
prejudiced results from social learning, it is learned from observing and imitating significant others, such as parents and peers
Historically, stratification has been tied closely to racial and ethnic categories
Types of Discrimination
Feagin has identified 4 major types

Isolate discrimination
-harmful action intentionally taken by a dominant group member against a member of a subordinate group
.
This occurs without the support of other members of the dominant group

Small Group discrimination
-harmful action intentionally taken by a limited number of dominant-group members against members of subordinate groups
Direct Institutionalized
-Organizationally prescribed or community prescribed action that intentionally has a differential and negative impact on members of subordinate groups

Indirect Institutionalized
-practices that have a harmful effect on subordinate group members even though the initial regulations were not established with intent to harm
Types of Discrimination
Quiz Yourself
Which of Feagin's 4 types would these be?
A small group of students vandalize another students vehicle with racial slurs
An individual law enforcement officer is more strict in their enforcement of the law with a member of a minority group
Due to an affirmative action program instituted at a prestigious University, some minority students are assumed to be only admitted due to their minority status, when in reality they were well above the requirments without any affirmative action program
Sociological Perspectives on Race/Ethnic Relations
"Contact Hypothesis" states that there will be favorable attitudes after contact between different groups when 4 factors are present
1)the members have equal status
2)the members are pursuing the same goals
3)the members cooperate with one another to achieve their goals
4)the members receive positive feedback when they interact with one another in positive ways
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
Sociological Perspectives on Race/Ethnic Relations
Functionalist Perspective
Most Functionalist Social Science studies are interested in the question:

"How do members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups become a part of the dominant group?"
"Assimilation"
"Ethnic Pluralism"
Assimilation
a process by which members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups become absorbed into the dominant culture
This can take on several forms:
-Conforming to the dominant group
-Gaining "mainstream" access for unique traits
Ethnic Pluralism
The coexistence of a variety of distinct racial and ethnic groups within one society
Switzerland is an example of this phenomenon
"Ethnic Pluralism" Can take on negative aspects
Segregation-
the spatial and social separation of categories of people by race, ethnicity, class, gender or religion
"de facto" vs. "de jure"
Sociological Perspectives on Race/Ethnic Relations
Conflict Perspective
these theories focus on economic stratification and access to power in ethnic relations
"Caste Perspective"-
our race relations with minorities in the low "castes" is permanent at the moment due to structural issues like laws, bias, etc.
Response
What do you see as barriers to assimilation or equality? What would be an idea or effort that could improve this?
Full transcript