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What is Plagiarism And How to Prevent it

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TAMIU Writing Center

on 14 September 2016

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Transcript of What is Plagiarism And How to Prevent it

What Is Plagiarism And How To Prevent It
Most Common Types of Plagiarism
What is Plagiarism?
All of the following are considered plagiarism:

Turning in someone else's work as your own

Copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit

Failing to put a quotation in quotation marks

Giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation

Changing words but copying the sentence of a source without giving credit

Copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not

Most Common Types of Plagiarism
Clone
—Submitting another's work, word-for-word, as one's own

CTRL-C
—Contains significant portions of text from a single source without alterations

Find-Replace
—Changing key words and phrases but retaining the essential content of the source

Remix
—Paraphrases from multiple sources, made to fit together

Recycle
—Borrows generously from the writer’s previous work without citation
Self-Plagiarism
According to Article 7 (Section 7.01 A) in the TAMIU Student Handbook, it is considered plagiarism "if you hand in the same paper in more than one class without the permission of the instructor. "
Presented by TAMIU Writing Center
What is Plagiarism?
Many think of plagiarism as copying another's work or borrowing someone else's original ideas. But terms like "copying" and "borrowing" can disguise the seriousness of the offense.


To plagiarize means:

To steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own

To use (another's production) without crediting the source

To commit literary theft

To present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source


In other words, plagiarism is an act of fraud. It involves both stealing someone else's work and lying about it afterward.
Identifying Plagiarism
Plagiarism is not always a black and white issue because there are so many different ways you can plagiarize, including some ways that are not well-known or easily recognizable.

Learning to recognize the various forms of plagiarism, especially the more ambiguous ones, is an important step towards effective prevention.
Words & Concepts
Information provided by plagiarism.org. Reprint and usage rights are granted by plagiarism.org. Information on this slide was taken from http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism-101/what-is-plagiarism
Information provided by plagiarism.org. Reprint and usage rights are granted by plagiarism.org. Information on this slide was taken from http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism-101/what-is-plagiarism
Information provided by plagiarism.org. Reprint and usage rights are granted by plagiarism.org. Information on this slide was taken from http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism-101/types-of-plagiarism/
Hybrid
- Combines perfectly cited sources with copied passages without citation

Mashup
- Mixes copied material from multiple sources

404 Error
- Includes citations to non-existent or inaccurate information about sources

Aggregator
- Includes proper citation to sources but the paper contains almost no original work

Retweet
- Includes proper citation, but relies too closely on the text's original wording and/or structure
Information provided by plagiarism.org. Reprint and usage rights are granted by plagiarism.org. Information on this slide was taken from http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism-101/types-of-plagiarism/
Information provided by plagiarism.org. Reprint and usage rights are granted by plagiarism.org. Information on this slide was taken from http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism-101/types-of-plagiarism/
Copyright
- A law protecting the intellectual property of individuals, giving them exclusive rights over the distribution and reproduction of that material.

Facts
- Empirically validated knowledge or information based on real, observable occurrences or experiments.

Fair Use
- The guidelines for deciding whether the use of a source is permissible or constitutes a copyright infringement.

Public Domain
- The absence of copyright protection; belonging to the public so that anyone may copy or borrow from it.

Self-plagiarism
- Copying published or unpublished material you have previously produced and passing it off as a new production. This can potentially violate copyright protection if the work has been published and is banned by most academic policies.


Information provided by plagiarism.org. Reprint and usage rights are granted by plagiarism.org. Information on this slide was taken from http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism-101/glossary
Information on this slide was taken from the TAMIU Student Handbook (https://www.tamiu.edu/studentaffairs/StudentHandbook1.shtml)
TAMIU Penalties for Plagiarism
The instructor has a right to give you an F for the entire course

You may be referred to the Honor Council for further disciplinary action

Severe academic ramifications, such as damaging your academic reputation, or even, in extreme cases, expulsion from the program or institution

Information on this slide was taken from the TAMIU Student Handbook (https://www.tamiu.edu/studentaffairs/StudentHandbook1.shtml)
TAMIU Penalties for Plagiarism
At the instructor's discretion, freshmen and sophomore students may be given a zero for the assignment and may be allowed to revise the assignment to receive up to a grade of an F (50%) if the instructor believes the student plagiarized out of ignorance or carelessness.

This option is usually not made available to juniors, seniors, or graduate students.
Information on this slide was taken from the TAMIU Student Handbook (https://www.tamiu.edu/studentaffairs/StudentHandbook1.shtml)
Prevention
Plan your paper
Take effective notes
When in doubt, cite sources
Make it clear who said what
Know how to paraphrase
Analyze and evaluate sources
Consult your instructor
Information provided by plagiarism.org. Reprint and usage rights are granted by plagiarism.org. Information on this slide was taken from http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism-101/prevention
Consult Your Instructor
If you can't find the answers or are unsure about something, you should ask your instructor

They will most likely be very happy to answer your questions
Information provided by plagiarism.org. Reprint and usage rights are granted by plagiarism.org. Information on this slide was taken from http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism-101/prevention
Plan Your Paper
If you know you are going to use other sources of information, you need to plan how you are going to include them in your paper. This means working out a balance between the ideas you have taken from other sources and your own, original ideas.

Writing an outline or coming up with a thesis statement where you clearly formulate an argument about the information you find will help establish the boundaries between your ideas and those of your sources.
Information provided by plagiarism.org. Reprint and usage rights are granted by plagiarism.org. Information on this slide was taken from http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism-101/prevention
Take Effective Notes
Take thorough notes from all of your sources so you have much of the information organized before you begin writing.

Poor note-taking can lead to many problems-- including improper citations and misquotations, both of which are forms of plagiarism.

Get in the habit of marking page numbers, and make sure that you record bibliographic information or web addresses for every source right away-- finding them again later when you are trying to finish your paper can be a nightmare.
Information provided by plagiarism.org. Reprint and usage rights are granted by plagiarism.org. Information on this slide was taken from http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism-101/prevention
When in Doubt, Cite Sources
If it is unclear whether an idea in your paper really came from you, or whether you got it from somewhere else and just changed it a little, you should always cite your source.


This will actually strengthen your paper by:

Showing that you are not just copying other ideas but are processing and adding to them

Lending outside support to the ideas that are completely yours

Highlighting the originality of your ideas by making clear distinctions between them and ideas you have gotten elsewhere
Information provided by plagiarism.org. Reprint and usage rights are granted by plagiarism.org. Information on this slide was taken from http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism-101/prevention
Make It Clear Who Said What
Ambiguity in your phrasing can often disguise the real source of any given idea, causing inadvertent plagiarism. Make sure when you mix your own ideas with those of your sources that you always clearly distinguish them.


For example:

Imagine you are talking about Harold Bloom's discussion of James Joyce's opinion of Shakespeare, and you write:

"He brilliantly portrayed the situation of a writer in society at that time."

Who is the "He" in this sentence? Bloom, Joyce, or Shakespeare?

Who is the "writer" in this sentence? Joyce, Shakespeare, or one of their characters?

Always make sure to distinguish who said what,
and give credit to the right person.
Information provided by plagiarism.org. Reprint and usage rights are granted by plagiarism.org. Information on this slide was taken from http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism-101/prevention
Know How To Paraphrase
A paraphrase is a restatement in your own words of someone else's ideas.

Changing a few words of the original sentences does NOT make your writing a legitimate paraphrase. You must change both the words and the sentence structure of the original, without changing the content.

Paraphrased passages still require citation because the ideas came from another source, even though you are putting them in your own words.
Information provided by plagiarism.org. Reprint and usage rights are granted by plagiarism.org. Information on this slide was taken from http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism-101/prevention
Analyze and Evaluate Sources
Not all sources on the web are worth citing-- in fact, many of them are just plain wrong. How do you tell the good ones apart?

Make sure you know the author(s) of the page, where they got their information, and when they wrote it.


To determine how credible your source is, check the following:

How well they support their ideas

The quality of the writing

The accuracy of the information provided, etc.

Consult your instructor


Information provided by plagiarism.org. Reprint and usage rights are granted by plagiarism.org. Information on this slide was taken from http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism-101/prevention
What is a Citation?
A "citation" is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source.

It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again, including:


Information about the author

The title of the work

The name and location of the company that published your copy of the source

The date your copy was published

The page numbers of the material you are borrowing

Information provided by plagiarism.org. Reprint and usage rights are granted by plagiarism.org. Information on this slide was taken from http://www.plagiarism.org/citing-sources/whats-a-citation
When Do I Need to Cite?
Whenever you borrow words or ideas, you need to acknowledge their source.

The following situations almost always require citation:

Whenever you use quotes

Whenever you paraphrase

Whenever you use an idea that someone else has already expressed

Whenever you make specific reference to the work of another

Whenever someone else's work has been critical in developing your own ideas
Information provided by plagiarism.org. Reprint and usage rights are granted by plagiarism.org. Information on this slide was taken from http://www.plagiarism.org/citing-sources/whats-a-citation
TAMIU Writing Center
Thank you and stop by the Writing Center!

Location:
Dr. Billy F. Cowart Hall, 203
Phone:
956-326-2884
E-mail:
writingcenter@tamiu.edu


Find us online!

Website:
tamiu.edu/uc/writingcenter
Facebook:
facebook.com/txamiu.writing
Twitter:
twitter.com/tamiuwc
Pinterest:
pinterest.com/tamiuwc





Appointments are encouraged, but walk-ins are accepted.

Welcome
This presentation was produced by the TAMIU Writing Center to inform students, faculty, and staff on how to identify and prevent plagiarism along with the TAMIU policies regarding plagiarism.
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Updated: 6-18-2014
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