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Chapter 2 (section 7) - Singapore's Connections with the world (19th century)

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Siti Hafizah Subramaniam

on 20 December 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 2 (section 7) - Singapore's Connections with the world (19th century)

Singapore's Connections with the world (19th century)
British Interest in SEA
Why Was Singapore Chosen as a British Port (1818)?
How Raffles set up a trading settlement in Singapore (1819)?
Find out more about the connections Singapore had with countries in the world before 19th century. What kind of connections were these?
British interest in SEA
Why choose Singapore as a British Port
How Raffles set up trading settlement in Singapore
Reactions of the Dutch and British towards the founding of Singapore
(19th century)
What Will I Learn Today?
British arrived in SEA only after the Portuguese and Dutch, as they had focused on their trading settlements and factories in India.
18th century--> British established themselves in SEA.
interested in trade with China and spice trade in SEA
This put the British in competition with the Dutch in SEA.
British wanted to break the Dutch monopoly over the spice trade
Set up trading ports against the Dutch ports in Riau and Sumatra
Control of the sea route between India and China
British attempted to establish themselves in the region by gaining control of Penang in 1786.
however, Penang was too far north of the straits of Melaka to serve as the centre of the India-China sea trade route.
To break Dutch monopoly of trade in the Malay Archipelago
To protect Britain’s trade with China
Bencoolen and Penang were unsuitable trading settlements
Many areas in the Malay Archipelago were under Dutch control
It had to break this monopoly if it wanted to engage in the Spice trade and protect its trades with China

Very profitable
Needed a stopover point to replenish supplies for journey between India and China
This could be provided by Singapore which had an excellent harbour and anchorage

Unsuitable as trading settlements because located far from the main trading area in the Archipelago
Singapore on the other hand was located along the Straits of Melaka – thus occupied a central location on the main trade route between India and China
When Raffles arrived, the island was under the supervision of Abdul Rahman, Temenggong of Johor.
During their meeting on 29 Jan 1819, Raffles explained about British East India Company wanting to set up a trading settlement in Singapore.
However, there was a succession dispute in the Johor-Riau Sultanate.
Only the Sultan could give Raffles permisson to set up a trading settlement in Singapore. However, this Sultan (Abdul Rahman) was under the Dutch control although the Dutch were not present in Singapore.
Raffles used the absence of the Dutch to support Tengku Hussein as the rightful sultan on the condition that he allow British to set up a trading settlement in Singapore. He smuggled Tengku Hussein into Singapore.
6 Feb 1819, a ceremony was held to proclaim Tengku Hussein as the Temenggong of Johor and a treaty was later signed to allow the trading settlement to be set up.
Reactions of the Dutch and the British towards the Founding of Singapore
Dutch unhappy with what Raffles had done
Dutch protested saying SIngapore was part of Johor-Riau Sultanate ruled by Sultan Abdul Rahman
Dutch threatened to use force to drive the British out
The British was also unhappy initially as Raffles' actions had affected their relations with the Dutch
Next few years, British realised the importance of Singapore to the expansion of their trade in China
Decided to keep Singapore, despite Dutch's protests
Eventually both sides settled the quarrel peacefully by signing the Anglo-Dutch Treaty in 1824
Malay Peninsula and Singapore under the British

Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) under the Dutch
The Dutch gave their port of Melaka to Britain in exchange for British port of Bencoolen
Britain had three ports in the Straits of Melaka: Singapore, Melaka and Penang --> British Straits Settlements (1826)

Singapore's Development as a British Trading Settlement
Anglo-Dutch treaty allowed Singapore to develop as a trading settlement without any interference from the Dutch
Singapore was a free port where trade flourished
Singapore became the centre of British trade and by 1832, had replaced Penang as the centre for Straits Settlement.
Initially had 16,00 inhabitants in 1832, which rised to 80,000 by 1850. Most of these were immigrants.
Reasons for British's interest in SEA
Why specifically Singapore as a British Port?
How Raffles managed to set up a British trading settlement in Singapore
Reactions of the Dutch and British towards the founding of Singapore (19th century)
Full transcript