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Transcript of Nanochemistry
Manufacturing Electronics Ancient uses of Nanoparticles: stained glass windows.
Feynman's proposal + terminology for it
1980's - the birth of modern nanotechnology/nanochemistry.
21st century - the spread of nanochemistry Definitions
Nanoparticle: An object with cartesian co-ordinates that fall between 1-100 nm
Nanochemistry: The chemistry of nanoparticles Carbon Nanotubes & Graphene Construction Materials Applications of Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes Carbon nanotubes are sheets of sp-2 hybridized carbon atoms that are rolled into a hollow cylinder, usually about 1 nm in diameter and 100nm in length
Graphene is essentially the same atomic array as carbon nanotubes, unrolled into a sheet
Both of these materials exhibit superior strength and flexibility properties, making them excellent materials Durability and flexibility
They can be used in cars, buildings, and bridges due to their tensile strength and their ductile properties, "bounce back"
Low density and weight
Because carbon nanotubes and graphene are low weight, low density materials, they are good for automotive and aerospace vehicles
Can improve fuel efficiency and manufacturing costs
low weight, strong fabrics can also be made from these nanomaterials
bulletproof vests, industrial ropes, cloths, etc. Concrete, which has a main component of Silica (SiO2) benefits in strength and from the small size and dense packing of Silica nanoparticles
This packing allows less water to seem in and break down the concrete diagram of cement's molecular structure; silica molecules are shown in purple and white Nanochemistry can be applied to many surfaces, whether it for protection, cleaning, or advanced function Titanium dioxide on glass:
react with impurities, hydrophilicity for rinsing
small particle size allows substances in small crevices to be reacted and washed out Glass and Coatings Tungsten dioxide and glass transparency level
glass can be coated with a Tungsten oxide nanoparticles
when electrical charge is passed through, glass appears opaque
good for tinting, privacy/concealment Sunscreens
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles provide effective sun protection on the skin
this happens through aggregation of the nanoparticles, and the tight formations block out UV rays. Antiseptic Materials Because nanoparticles have antiseptic properties they can be applied to preventing the spread of fungus and bacteria in the sports industry.
This is because the nanoparticles prevent oxygen from reaching the pathogen, which it needs to survive
Applied to shoes, towels, socks, etc. Applications: Nanoparticles are highly desirable because they provide scientists with opportunities for improving the efficiency, sustainibility and speed of pre-existing processes.
• Compared to their bulk material counterparts, nanoparticle based technologies use less material
• Have high levels of reactivity • • Drug Delivery
• Antimicrobial Agents
• Cell Repair
• Prosthetics Drug Delivery Drug delivery involves the delivery of drugs to specific cells in the body via distribution fluids.
Problem: More than half of new drugs developed are insoluble in water
Solution: Use nanosized particles of drugs which can be made to: (i) Target a specific site
(ii) Easily be distributed throught out the body
(iii) Release doses on a pretermined schedule Docetaxel-loaded Nanoparticles Docetaxel is chemotherapy drug which has shown success against a variety of tumors (e.g. lung, ovary,breast, etc.)
Issues: - Poor solubility in aqueous solutions
- Requires specific solvent system to facilitate its use
- Non-specific distribution throughout the body
- Melanoma is found in the skin Solution: Incorporate docetaxel into amphilic block co-polymer nanoparticle. Synthesis of Docetaxel Nanoparticles - Dissolved 10 mg of mPEG-PCL block co-polymer & a predetermined amount of docetaxel in acetone
- Added new solution dropwise into 10x the volumes of distilled water under gentle stirring at room temp.
- Filtered solution to remove non-incorporated drugs and co-polymer aggregates Cellular uptake of Nanoparticles Zhang et. al conducted experiments to determine the efficacy of docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles entering the cell Efficacy of the Docetaxel-loaded nanoparticle Experiments conducted by Zhang et al. showed docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles to be just as effective as their bulk counterparts in killing B16 melanoma cells
Docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles could induce more slightly higher cell death counts than in bulk counterparts
In vivo experiments showed that docetaxel nanoparticles produced greater efficacy at inhibiting tumor growth than the Docetaxel Bulk
dosage Nanoparticles vs. Colloids
Nanoparticles are more reactive than their bulk counterparts .
Quantum effect and Color
Suspension in solutions. Sol-Gel Fabrication
Laser Ablation Semiconductor Chips and Wire Production Nanotubes as Wiring/Storage Material Battery Technology Battery technology can use carbon nanotubes and graphene by creating a highly conductive carbon-metal sheet.
Coating the electrode of a battery with nanoparticles increases the available power from a battery by increasing the surface area of the electrode, allowing more current to flow between the electrode and the chemicals inside the battery. This also decreases the recharge time.
Using nanoparticles provides a less flammable electrode material, reducing the chance of batteries catching fire.
Nanoparticles allow for the separation of liquids in the battery from the solid electrode when there is no draw on the battery. This prevents low level discharge and increases the shelf life of the battery. An example of a scanning tunneling microscope. Nanoparticles are good for production in the electronics industry because they posses a high level of conductivity.
Using nanotechnology for electrical uses will provide cheaper methods of synthesizing new semiconductors and wires that are faster and more efficient. Nanotubes have current drive expectations of about one magnitude higher than the modern computer metal-oxide semiconductors.
This occurs because of a reduction in phonon scattering, which allows for better transport.
Organic carbon based nanomolecules have a low rate of electron transport/transfer so they can be used for high density data storage chips.
Quantum-sized wiring also allows for low power usage of chips, which reduces the energy operating costs of computers. Nanoparticle Applications for Batteries Can be used to create a battery small enough to be implanted in the eye and power an artificial retina.
Lithium ion batteries with nanoparticle electrodes can meet the safety requirements for electric cars while improving the performance.
Thermocells that use nanotubes to generate electricity
Electrical generator built with nanomaterial that can produce electrical power (in watts) from walking.