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Transcript of Chapter 17
-Interruption of cotton production in Civil War
-Led to rapid expansion of cotton production in India, Egypt, Brazil
-When southern production resumed, created a glut on the market
-From 1881-1894, prices fell from 11 cents/pound to 4.6 cents/pound
-Millions of farmers deep in debt; started losing land
-Farmers blamed high freight charges by railroads, excessive interest rates and federal policy
-Spread to 43 states by 1890
-Originally, farmers pooled resources for loans, shipping, etc.
-Proposed federal government should establish warehouses for crop storage
-Crops would serve as collateral for low interest loans from the government
-Represented all working classes, not just farmers
-Published pamphlets, more than 1,000 newspapers and sponsored touring speakers
-Expressed the 'evils' of banks and large corporations
-Urged federal regulation of railroads, telegraphs and national markets
-Preached against political corruption and economic inequality
-Wealthy were building their fortunes on the backs of workers
-direct election of U.S. Senators
-Government regulation of the money supply
-Graduated income tax
-Low cost public financing for farmers
-Right of workers to form labor unions
-Public ownership of railroads
-Endorsed women's right to vote
Mary Elizabeth Lease
"We fought England for our liberty and put chains on 4 million blacks. We wiped out slavery and began a system of white wage slavery worse than the first."
-Creator of the railroad sleeping car
-Cut workers' wages by 10%; Workers went on strike
-In a show of solidarity, 150,000 members of American Railway Union supported strike; refused to handle trains with Pullman cars
-Crippled rail service; President Grover Cleveland ordered workers back to work
-Federal troops sent in; violent clashes; 34 dead
-Supreme Court upheld right to use injunctions
Willliam Jennings Bryan
-Ran against William McKinley in 1896
-36 years old; condemned gold standard and said silver should also be used to stabilize money supply
-Minting of more silver would increase money supply; that would raise prices and allow farmers to pay off debts
"Burn down your cities and leave our farms and your cities will spring up again as if by magic; but destroy our farms and grass will grow in the streets of every city in the country."
-McKinley supported by business; McKinley wins election
Wizard of Oz
-Political satire about 1896 election
-Emerald City (all green - money) represented Washington, D.C.
-Wizard of Oz - William McKinley
-Only way to get to the city was to follow the yellow brick road (gold)
-Wicked witches of the East and West - oppressive industrialists and mine owners
-Dorothy's ruby red slippers - In the book they are silver - preferred by ordinary people
The Segregated South
Redeemers in charge
State budgets slashed; taxes reduced public facilities like hospitals, asylums closed
Public education de-emphasized; number of illiterate whites increased
Increased sentences for petty crimes; increased prison population
States and locals would then rent out prisoners for labor (chain gangs)
Per capita income in South was 60% of national average
Black Life in the South
-Growth in black middle class in cities; rural areas remained bleak
-1879-1880, 40-60,000 blacks left South migrating to Kansas; Called the Exodus; most though were stuck in the South
-Very little job growth in South
-Southern states enacted laws to prevent minorities from voting - poll taxes, literacy tests, demonstration of the understanding of state constitution
-Louisiana: 1894 - 130,000 registered black voters; 1904 - 1,342; 80,000 white voters also lost their right to vote
-Approximately 3% of adult southern black males were registered to vote
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Plessy vs. Ferguson
-Case reached Supreme Court in 1896
-Homer Plessy was an octaroon: 7/8 white, 1/8 black
-Ferguson was original judge in the case
-Louisiana law mandated separate rail cars for white and blacks
-Plessy sat in a white-only car and was arrested
-By 7-1 vote, Supreme Court upheld Louisiana law saying it was constitutional to have 'separate but equal facilities'
Laws of Segregation Not Exclusive to Blacks
-Portrayed minorities as savages and criminals incapable of partaking of freedom
-Chinese were heavily targeted
-1875: Congress banned Chinese women from entering the U.S.
-1882: Banned all Chinese immigrants
-Native Americans were excluded from virtually every equality law
Becoming a World Power
Lure of Empire
-Cuba fighting for independence from Spain
-U.S. sent ship to monitor situation (U.S.S. Maine)
-Explosion of U.S.S. Maine (270 killed); declared war on Spain
-War lasted only four months; "It was a splendid little war" - Theodore Roosevelt
-U.S. defeated Spanish fleet in the Pacific gaining control of The Philippines, Guam
-Also acquired Puerto Rico
-Granted Cuba independence in return for permanent naval base- Guantanomo Bay
Ownership vs. Labor
What is the purpose?
Who does it help?
Who would oppose a union?
How could they oppose it?