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Transcript of Memory
Long term memory
Short -Term and Working Memory
STM - capacity of holding a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time
Duration: 10s to 1 minute
-Books: Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology by Nolen Hoeksema Frederick Loftus Wagenaar; Fundamentals of Psychology Michael W. Eysenck; Memory by Gross and McIlvee,
What is it?
is the psychological function of preserving information, involving the process of encoding, storage and retrieval.
Introduction: definition of memory and the multistore model.
The sensory stores
The short-term memory store
The long-term memory store
Evaluation and other theories
The multistore model of memory
Scather & Tulving 1997
Bahrick et al. 1975
Jenkins & Dallenbach 1924
Valid way to think of it
Might be divided even further
Need for more proof
Evaluation of MTM
iconic memory (vision) lasts 1/10 seconds
echoic memory (audition) lasts a few seconds
Study by George Sperling 1960
shortest term element of memory
received through the 5 senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch -sensory storage to all sensory modalities, stimulus trigger what is called a sensory response in the nervous system
information about our environment
if information are ignored: disappear
if attention is paid: information is transferred to short-term memory
Memory fades away after ⅓ seconds
Participants could remember 4 to 5 out of 12 digits
Problem: seeing image but not able to report much of it more letters available than they were able to report in the traditional whole report condition- therefore you see more than you can remember
An alternative: levels of processing
Is it necessary to make a distinction between the various storage system ? Shall we consider it as different phases of one process ?
The type (maintenance and elaborative) of rehearsal has more importance than the amount of rehearsal
Maybe both short-term and long-term memories should be divided into subcategories
The theory emphasizes the structure more than the actual process.
Does not explain how it affects our behaviour
Scovillle & Milner, 1957
-HM had normal STM, but impaired LTM
-Shows importance of type of rehearsal (not able to rehearse elaboratively)
Shallice & Warrington, 1970
-KF had normal LTM, but poor STM
-Goes along with MTM because it shows that there are different parts dedicated to processing different types of information
The stages of Working memory
1) Encoding (put into memory through
2) Storage (maintaining in memory)
3) Retrieval (recover from memory)
Phonological (sounds into memory)
Visual (information into mental image)
The Magic Number Seven
Memory span in a phonological loop : 7 +/-2
It is the upper limit of our capacity to process information simultaneously with a reliable accuracy and validity
Chunking: a way of organising information in small, familiar groupings in order to remember them
Process in which information is recalled (40 milliseconds)
Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
Aim: investigate if participants can use different parts of the working memory at once
Method: dual task technique
Results: more time to answer, yet errors stay the same
Verbal reasoning task made use of the Central Executive while the digit span of the phonological loop
Weaknesses and strengths
It substituted STM
takes in account a wide range of tasks
supported by experiments
Applies to real life tasks
little evidence on how central executive works
Working memory only includes STM, so it can't be considered as a comprehensive model of memory
does not explain the processing that happens as a result of practice
Craik and Lockhart, 1972
the processes involved in memory
a non-structured approach
a by-product of the depth of processing of information
"the meaningfulness extracted from the stimulus rather than in terms of the number of analyses performed upon it.”
which is when we encode only the physical qualities of something. E.g. the typeface of a word or how the letters look.
Structural processing (appearance)
which is when we encode its sound.
Shallow processing only involves maintenance rehearsal (repetition to help us hold something in the STM) and leads to fairly short-term retention of information. This is the only type of rehearsal to take place within the multi-store model.
which happens when we encode the meaning of a word and relate it to similar words with similar meaning.
Deep processing involves elaboration rehearsal which involves a more meaningful analysis (e.g. images, thinking, associations etc.) of information and leads to better recall. For example, giving words a meaning or linking them with previous knowledge.
Levels of processing: The idea that the way information is encoded affects how well it is remembered. The deeper the level of processing, the easier the information is to recall.
Key Study: Craik and Tulving (1975)
To investigate how deep and shallow processing affects memory recall.
Participants were presented with a series of 60 words about which they had to answer one of three questions. Some questions required the participants to process the word in a deep way (e.g. semantic) and others in a shallow way (e.g. structural and phonemic). For example:
Structural / visual processing: ‘Is the word in capital letters or small letters?
Phonemic / auditory processing: ‘Does the word rhyme with . . .?’
Semantic processing: ‘Does the word go in this sentence . . . . ?
Participants were then given a long list of 180 words into which the original words had been mixed. They were asked to pick out the original words.
Participants recalled more words that were semantically processed compared to phonemically and visually processed words.
Semantically processed words involve elaboration rehearsal and deep processing which results in more accurate recall. Phonemic and visually processed words involve shallow processing and less accurate recall.
The theory is an improvement on Atkinson & Shiffrin’s account of transfer from STM to LTM.
The levels of processing model changed the direction of memory research. It showed that encoding was not a simple, straightforward process. This widened the focus from seeing long-term memory as a simple storage unit to seeing it as a complex processing system.
Craik and Lockhart's ideas led to hundreds of experiments, most of which confirmed the superiority of 'deep' semantic processing for remembering information. It explains why we remember some things much better and for much longer than others. This explanation of memory is useful in everyday life because it highlights the way in which elaboration, which requires deeper processing of information, can aid memory.
It does not explain how the deeper processing results in better memories.
Deeper processing takes more effort than shallow processing and it could be this, rather than the depth of processing that makes it more likely people will remember something.
The concept of depth is vague and cannot be observed. Therefore, it cannot be objectively measured.
Bransford, J. D., Franks, J. J., Morris, C.D., & Stein, B.S.(1979). Some general constraints on learning and memory research. In L.S. Cermak & F.I.M. Craik(Eds.), Levels of processing in human memory (pp.331–354). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum AssociatesInc.
Craik, F. I. M., & Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal behavior, 11, 671-684.
Craik, F.I.M., & Tulving, E. (1975). Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 104, 268-294.
Eysenck, M. W. & Keane, M. T. (1990). Cognitive psychology: a student's handbook, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Ltd., Hove, UK.