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Human Rights

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by

Arthur Alger

on 22 October 2014

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Transcript of Human Rights

Zimbabwe
Sierra Leone
Diamonds discovered
2006
June 2006:
Diamond rush
November 2006:
Police took control.
In an effort to create a diamond rush the mines were open for anyone to enter
Police were ordered to take over the mines to crack down on any illegal trade, they were told to shoot anyone caught in the mines.
2008
Elections
ZANU-PF
MDC
Zimbabwe National Union-Patriotic Fund
Movement for democratic Change
The MDC won the election, but did not get over 50% of the vote so their was a run off election.
Due to the violence perpetrated by members of ZANU-PF and the CIO, MDC pulled out of the election and ZANU-PF won.
2009
ZANU-PF
MDC
Zimbabwe National Union-Patriotic Fund
Movement for democratic Change
Southern African Development Community
-Presidents Office

-Central Intelligence Office

-Defense

-The Ministry of Mines
-Prime Ministers Office

-Ministry of Finance
Sam Pa
The Syndicate
Military
ZANU-PF
Robert Mugabe
CIO
Billion
$8
Mining
rights
$100 million
200 Nissan Utes
Anjin Investments
(Pvt) Ltd.
July 2010
: Started operation
November 2011
: Received Clearance from the Kimberly Project to export diamonds
By this stage Anjin had a stockpile of
3 Million
Carats of Diamond and could produce a further
12,000 tonnes
of diamond ore a day.
Human Rights watch suggested that the Diamonds in Zimbabwe could produce $100 -$200 million a month.
Yet in May of 2012 Ajnin was yet to pay any taxes
Less than half
the population of Zimbabwe has access to clean water
Disease is so
prevalent and life expectancy is so poor that 40 percent of the population is under 15
Zimbabwe is running out of diamonds
In 2012 the government made $685 million
In 2013 the government made $188 million
2009
Kimberly Process
In July 2009 The Kimberly Process conducted a review of the mine fields in Zimbabwe
"certain challenges in complying with the minimum standard"
"Credible indications of non-compliance"
Unemployment is over 50%
Operation Hakudzokwi (No Return):
A military take over of the mines
Between 1922 and 1959
Nigeria
struggled to overcome the rule of the
British.
On 1st October 1960, Nigeria became self-governing from British colonial rule
Only lasted till January 1966 when the civilian government was overthrown in a military coup
Military run government continued to sway until 1993 when civilian government was restored and has continued to this day
At this time, there were only 3 political parties in Nigeria, however, that has grown to 28 political parties since then
Currently, Nigeria is composed of 36 states and a Capital Territory
Nigeria made up of:
Executive
Legislature
Judiciary
- President
- Vice President
- Executive council
- 109 member senate
- 360 member House of
Representatives
- Interprets the law
- Adjudicates conflicts
in April 1961 after a constitution was created
Sierra Leone
achieved independence from the
British
The President, who is both chief of state, Head of Government and a cabinet, governs the Executive branch in Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone is divided into three provinces: Eastern, Northern and Southern which are then divided into districts that are then composed of
Chiefdoms...
Sierra Leone...still 'traditional'...
- Few citizens can afford lawyers
- Civil litigants know little about their rights
= those who don't have money at a disadvantage
The natural resources that provide for this country include: diamonds; iron ore; chromite; gold; timber; cattle grazing; agriculture; and fishing.
Although...
DIAMONDS
...were/are the predominant source of income for Sierra Leone
After Sierra Leone became an independent country, the diamond smuggling become a political problem as well as an economic one
By 1991, Sierra Leone had a completely
On March 23, a
corrupt government...
civil war
broke out when the Revolutionary United Front invaded east Sierra Leone
In terms of resources, Nigeria possesses a large amount of resources that contribute to the growing economy. These resources include: coal; rock salt; gold; marble; lead/zinc; and iron ore
The President of Sierra Leone, Charles Taylor, is accused of fuelling a bloody war by fighting with the rebels against Liberia through the sale of diamonds.
In 2003 after two civil wars in Liberia, Taylor was forced to exile into Nigeria after a peace agreement was signed.
Sierra Leone
Blood Diamonds
On the 5th of November 2002 representatives of 48 nations (including Australia, United states of America, United Arab Emirates, the European Union etc.) gathered for a meeting in Switzerland for the announcement of the Kimberly process international scheme.
The Kimberly process scheme is an international scheme that was designed to reduce the amount of conflict diamonds used in international trades (D. Feldman, 1990). The Kimberly process scheme aims to reduce the amount of conflict diamonds being used in international trade by introducing a process for rough diamonds to be sold internationally
The Kimberly process requires:
Any shipment of rough diamonds that are shipped across an international boarder must be:
transported in a tamper-resistant container
must be accompanied by a government validated Kimberly process certificate
Each Kimberly process certificate must be resistant to any form or forgery; the certificate must be uniquely numbered and must describe the contents of the shipment.
The shipment may only be exported to another country that is a member of the Kimberly process scheme. And the importing countries customs have the role to check the contents of the shipment and ensure that the Kimberly process certificate if valid and correct
Under the Kimberly Process.
It is
Illegal

to:
for uncertified shipments of rough diamonds to be imported and/or exported by a Kimberley Process participant country. Any country that fails to comply with these procedures can lead to confiscation or rejection of the parcels. Any country that fails to comply with the Kimberly process scheme may also be charged with criminal sanctions (Kimberly Process International Scheme, 2002).
The Kimberly process international scheme was not made in the form of a treaty, as it required no signatures- however it was enforced within individual nations in their laws and regulations (D. Feldman, 2003). In 2003 participating countries started to implement rules in regards to Kimberly process scheme.
The Kimberly process scheme imposes extensive requirements upon countries that look to join the scheme as a member. The member courtiers must meet the requirements of the Kimberly process agreement to enable them to certify shipments of rough diamonds as ‘conflict-free’ diamonds.
Non Government Organizations such as: Oxfam, Amnesty international, world diamond council and Global witness are also involved in the Kimberly process international scheme. The role of the non-government organizations is to uphold the values and conditions outlined in the Kimberly process international scheme.
The role of the Non-Government Organizations is in the form of Advocacy and Education.
Amnesty international advocated against conflict diamonds as it proudly supporting the movie “Blood diamond”, Amnesty international produced a teachers guide based on the movie- the teachers guide that includes lesson plans, a glossary, discussion questions and materials for student studies. The guide provides students with insight to explore individual as well as collective and social responsibility in regards to conflict diamonds (Amnesty International, 2014).
The non-government organisation global witness provides education to companies, government and civil society organisation’s to address the concerns of sourcing of diamonds (Global Witness, 2014). Global witness asks that companies that are purchasing or trading rough or polished diamonds to find out whether their purchases have funded conflict or human rights abuses at any point in the supply chain (Global Witness, 2014). This may be done by asking for a certificate of the Kimberly process or tracking where the diamond has come from. This concept is known as due diligence (Global Witness, 2014).
The current state of conflict diamonds on paper and in theory would suggest that since the establishment of the Kimberly Process scheme and legislation made to enforce penalties on any individual who do not follow the Kimberly process and the use of Non-Government organizations role in advocating and educating about conflict diamonds, suggests that the global issue of conflict diamonds are at a halt.
between the
54 members
of the Kimberly process that come from
90 countries
account for almost
100% of the global trade
of rough diamonds.
Statics reinforce this.
However, Amnesty international reported in 2007 that there is a new found loophole within the Kimberly process and other governing legislation- Amnesty international reported that conflict diamonds are still a reality, that conflict diamonds are still being used to fuel conflict, civil wars and abuse individuals human rights.
In 2007, the illegal trade of conflict diamonds funded the conflicts in Africa that resulted in the death and displacement of millions of people (Amnesty International, 2007). The profits from the illegal trade of conflict diamonds allowed for the rebels in Africa to buy weapons.
It is estimated that during 2007 that 3.7 million people have died in Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, and Sierra Leone in conflicts fuelled and funded by the illegal trade and selling of conflict diamonds
(Amnesty International, 2007).
What are 'blood diamonds'?
'Blood diamonds' are diamonds in which slaves across many countries in Africa have been forced by corrupt political leaders and rebel groups to extract from the earth and trade illegally.
These diamonds are subsequently smuggled across some parts of Africa to fund the corrupt rebel factions in their civil wars and shed the of those who do not comply with requests.
blood
Although the issue is prevalent in the North African countries of Sierra Leone, it is not exclusive to these two.
Due to its nature of encouraging conflict, these diamonds are also referred to as 'conflict diamonds'. They are described by the United Nations as;
"Diamonds that originate from areas controlled by forces or factions opposed to legitimate and internally recognized government, and are used to fund military action in opposition to those governments, or in contravention of the decisions of the Security Council"
Diamonds were first discovered in the jungles of Sierra Leone by British zoologists in the 1930s, when the country was still a British colony. These diamonds were proven to be amongst the most valuable diamonds in the world.
Angola
Guinea
Cote
d'Ivoire

In 1935, a legitimate and reputable diamond manufacturing and distributing company by the name of De Beers obtained control of all diamond production until 1961 - the Independence.
It was following this Independence from Great Britain that corrupt political leaders and rebel groups alike gained control over diamond distribution and used their newly found power for evil rather than good.
The diamonds were then traded illegally throughout Africa (particularly the North and West) as well as other countries that were invested. The profits were used to fund conflict in war-torn areas and subsequently began a civil war.
Men, women and children are used as slaves to extract the diamonds through grueling methods. These slaves were often forced to extract diamonds with their bare hands by digging into gravel or mud along the banks of North African rivers and sort through their collections with hand-held sieves. Such process could take them hours to do for little reward.
The tedious, physically exhausting and damaging manner in which these slaves extract the diamonds, contributes to the name appropriately given to the diamonds (blood or conflict).
It is estimated that approximately 4% of the world's diamonds are illegitimate conflict diamonds.
Between the early 1990s and 2000s, a rebel group by the name of Revolutionary United Front (RUF) began attacking villages throughout North Africa, particularly Sierra Leone, to terrorize anyone who didn't comply with their rules.
April 27, 1961 - Sierra Leone
Independence Day
From the year 1935 to the Independence in 1961, the diamonds that were produced specifically in Sierra Leone were reputable and legitimate. Following the Independence, the mines became nationalized.
In March of 1991, RUF gained control of Eastern Sierra Leone by taking advantage of the weak and flawed government. The group managed to overthrow the government as it lacked in control and power.
Foday Sankoh, the leader of RUF, managed to attain 90% of Sierra Leone's diamond industry and produce with the help of his rebel group. The proceeds of the diamonds were used to smuggle weaponry over the border to be used in combat.
Sankoh promised the people of Sierra Leone that he would use his new-found fortune to give back to the community, but as expected, his promise was broken and he instead used his power to hurt innocent people. These acts were administered in order to prove to the government that it did not have control nor the ability to protect its people.
The RUF is notorious worldwide for its brutality and dismissal of human rights.
Foday Sankoh
Religious beliefs or cultural influences cannot be attributed to this behavior, but instead a hunger for power and wealth. These power-hungry people believe that they are superior to others and that the monetary value of the diamonds is more important than the harm that they cause to innocents.
There are multiple religions within North Africa (although predominantly Muslim and Christianity), however religion does not act as a causal factor for such acts.
North Africa is not exclusive in the diamond trade, as other countries such as India and Brazil were first found to have successful diamond mines. Many other countries are involved in the trade, but they may receive and re-distribute the diamonds rather than unearth and produce them.
North Africa, in general, is large in size and a common home to diamond mines. However, it is not the first nor the last place that diamonds were discovered. The geographical location could act as a causal factor due to the prevalence of diamonds and mines, but the geographical location is not an exclusive reason as to why such atrocities have occurred and why the corrupt leadership turned to the illicit acts.
Nigeria
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