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Anemia and Sickle-Cell Disease

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Ted Pane

on 27 April 2010

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Transcript of Anemia and Sickle-Cell Disease

Iron Deficiency Anemia and Sickle-Cell Disease by: Ted Pane Anemia
is a decrease in normal number of red blood cells (RBCs) or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood
Sickle-Cell Disease
is a genetic life-long blood disorder characterized by red blood cells that assume an abnormal, rigid, sickle shape Iron deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia, and is known as sideropenic anemia. It is the most common form of microcytic anemia.
The diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia requires further investigation as to its cause. It can be a sign of other disease, such as colon cancer, which will cause the loss of blood in the stool. In adults, 60% of patients with iron deficiency anemia may have underlying gastrointestinal disorders leading to chronic blood loss. In addition to dietary insufficiency, malabsorption, chronic blood loss, diversion of iron to fetal erythropoiesis during pregnancy, intravascular hemolysis and hemoglobinuria or other forms of chronic blood loss should all be considered.
If the cause is dietary iron deficiency, iron supplements, usually with iron (II) sulfate, ferrous gluconate, or iron amino acid chelate ferrous bisglycinate, synthetic chelate NaFerredetate, EDTA will usually correct the anemia. One example of Sickle Cell Treatment:
patients will take a 1 mg dose of folic acid daily for life. From birth to five years of age, they will also have to take penicillin daily due to the immature immune system that makes them more prone to early childhood illnesses Cause of Sickle Cell: Inheritance
Sickle-cell conditions are inherited from parents in much the same way as blood type, hair color and texture, eye color, and other physical traits.
The types of haemoglobin a person makes in the red blood cells depend on what haemoglobin genes are inherited from his parents.
If one parent has sickle-cell anaemia (SS) and the other has sickle-cell trait (AS), there is a 50% chance of a child's having sickle-cell disease (SS) and a 50% chance of a child's having sickle-cell trait (AS).
When both parents have sickle-cell trait (AS), a child has a 25% chance (1 of 4) of sickle-cell disease (SS), as shown in the diagram Classification of Anemia:
In the morphological approach, anemia is classified by the size of red blood cells; this is either done automatically or on microscopic examination of a peripheral blood smear. The size is reflected in the mean corpuscular volume (MCV). If the cells are smaller than normal (under 80 fl), the anemia is said to be microcytic; if they are normal size (80–100 fl), normocytic; and if they are larger than normal (over 100 fl), the anemia is classified as macrocytic. This scheme quickly exposes some of the most common causes of anemia; for instance, a microcytic anemia is often the result of iron deficiency. In clinical workup, the MCV will be one of the first pieces of information available; so even among clinicians who consider the "kinetic" approach more useful philosophically, morphology will remain an important element of classification and diagnosis
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