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PEACEMAKING, PEACEKEEPING, AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, 1919
Transcript of PEACEMAKING, PEACEKEEPING, AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, 1919
the aims of the participants and peacemakers: Wilson & the 14 Points
terms of the Paris Peace Treaties 1919-20: Versailles, St Germain, Trianon, Neuilly, Sevres/Lausanne 1923
the geopolitical and economic impact of the treaties on Europe; the establishment and impact of the mandate system
enforcement of the provisions of the treaties: US isolationism- the retreat from the Anglo-American Guarantee; disarmament- Washington, London, and Geneva conferences
the League of Nations: effects of the absence of major powers; the principle of collective security and early attempts at peacekeeping (1920-25).
the Ruhr crisis (1925); Locarno and the “Locarno Spring” (1925)
Depression and threats to the international peace and collective security: Manchuria (1931-33) and Abyssinia (1935-36)
TOPICS TO BE COVERED
How did Europe go from “The War to end all wars” to the deadliest war in the history of mankind?
THE WAR & ITS TREATIES
Review: What was the condition of Europe in 1919? What were the issues that needed to be dealt with at the PPC?
Relevant Issues at the PPC
Reconstructing Europe: Political/Economic Chaos
Repaying war debts
Redrawing Europe, particularly in the East.
Resisting Communism and Bolshevism.
Revenge or Idealism: the status of Germany?
Realpolitik or Wilsonianism?
Respecting wartime promises?
Using the readings and your own research, make a chart showing the interests of each of the participants in the Paris Peace Conference, as well as Germany and Russia. The chart should also show each countries position in relation each "RE"levant issue from the previous slide
INTERESTS: What your general goals for the conferences are.
POSITIONS: What your specific recommendations are for each issue.
POSITION: STATUS OF GERMANY?
POSITION: WAR DEBTS?
Use the sections from Hodder as a starting point. They have section on the aims of the countries at the PPC.
1. Group member 1 reads section on France and gives oral detailed outline of their positions and interests.
2. Group member 2 and 3 use that detailed outline to fill in the chart.
3. Repeat for all other nations.
Looking at the completed chart, where are the areas of agreement and disagreement. Which issues do you think will be hardest to work out? Which nations seem like natural allies and which seem most likely to conflict?
PRESS CONFERENCE TIME
You will hold a press conference addressing the media on these issues. What are your positions/interests? How do they match with the positions/interests of others? Why should those positions and interests be honored? What should happen at the conference?
The media (those not representing your country) will ask clarifying and challenging questions to your country’s representatives.
Each member not presenting must have one clarifying and one challenging question for each country
Form 2 large groups, each group made up of one representative from each country.
Work together to design a treaty that works best and meets the needs of your country.
The treaty should come to a decision on at least five of the issues and should be written in treaty language.
"Whereas...", "It has been decided that..."
Many historians argue that the Treaty was
to reconcile with Germany and integrate her into the postwar world yet
to destroy her. Explain why you think this happened.
PROVISIONS OF THE TOV
What is YOUR Response to the Treaty of Versailles? Was it Fair?
Could it have been better?
What, if any, problems do you see with it?
Do you feel the German objections to the treaty were justified (consider the Fischer Thesis)?
What is the message conveyed in this source?
Were you able to make a treaty? Why or Why not?
What were the major points of agreement?
What were the major points of disagreement?
BOTH OF THESE CARTOONS DEAL WITH THE FAILURE OF THE AMERICANS TO JOIN THE LON. IDENTIFY THE OPINION/MESSAGE OF EACH CARTOON AND EXPLAIN HOW THEY CONTRAST.
1. Take the role of an official given the task of drawing the boundaries of the new Central and Eastern European states. Explain what considerations you used when drawing the boundaries of Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia
2. Use the map given to you and draw new states out of the old Austrian Empire. Keep in mind the considerations you came up with in question 1.
IN CLASS ESSAY NEXT WEDNESDAY ON THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES. PAPER 2 MARKBANDS.
TREATY OF NEUILLY
TREATY OF ST GERMAIN
TREATY OF SEVRES
YOUR SOLUTIONS: VALUES AND LIMITATIONS? What was most difficult?
Using your text and at least two other reliable sources:
One hour to prepare
Does this map tell the truth?
What is the nature of a map? What does it try to do? What are the benefits of maps?Are there dangers in a map fulfilling its function?
GEOPOLITICAL EFFECTS OF THE TREATIES ON EUROPE
“Those who can win a war well can rarely make a good peace.” To what extent do you agree with this statement in regards to the treaties that followed the First World War. Use the sources as well as your own knowledge
Effects of the War
Effects of the Treaties
CREATE A PAPER 1
In groups of three, choose one of the following broad topics. From that broad topic, choose one specific event and create a complete, fully formatted paper I Examination complete with Mark scheme.
TEACH YOUR TOPIC
In addition to the Paper One, your group must create lessons to help teach the major aspects of your section. This should include some way to convey the content of the section to the students, create resources, as well as some activities/discussions for the class to do (role play/source analysis/source evaluation/debate).
Paper 1s due:
Impact Germany/Italy- April 29, 30
LON/Collective Security- May 4, 5
Disarmament- May 5, 11
Mandate System- May 12
Do not try to teach everything!
Choose 4 to 5 ideas/main points that you want to teach and think about how best to convey them.
Think about activities we have done in class before and model them
Know your topic well enough that you are not reading off of a computer/script.
HAVE YOUR 4-5 MAIN POINTS AND IDEAS FOR TEACHING BY THE END OF CLASS TODAY!
Paris Peace Treaties
The idealistic 14-Points were often compromised to make particular nations, namely France, feel rewarded and secure
Redrawing Europe was difficult due to ethic population distribution, the threat of Bolshevism, and the challenge of creating economically viable states.
Germany felt mistreated and humiliated by the treaties and some feared the treaties would cause more harm than good.
Historians and commentators had varying opinions as to whether the peace could have been better.
Some of the treaties were considered more harsh than others.
The best way to approach this question
Define what a good peace would have looked like to you. What criteria should it meet?
One paragraph for each aspect, using specific clauses and decisions to back up your point.
Measure the treaties against these criteria.
Why was it a bad peace/good peace?
Bring in more than Versailles.
Always link back to the question!
the geopolitical and economic impact of the treaties: Germany and Italy
the geopolitical and economic impact of the treaties: Russia, Austria, and the Balkans
Diplomatic Realities and the League of Nations: effects of the absence of major powers; the principle of collective security and early attempts at peacekeeping (1920-25).
the Mandate System
-you must find your own sources. do not use any of the sources from our textbook!
-Use the exams on the Weebly as a template for your exam. your exam MUST be formatted in the same way
Versailles, reparations, war guilt, plebiscite, Weimar Republic, self determination, ethnic minorities, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria, Poland, 14 Points, Woodrow Wilson, David Lloyd George, George Clemenceau, John Maynard Keynes, Vittorio Orlando, Bolshevism, Treaty of Rapallo, St Germain, Neuilly, Trianon, Sevres, Lausanne, Mustafeh Kemal, mandate system, provisional independence, trusteeship, Iraq, Transjordan, Palestine, Syria, Arabs, Jews, Balfour Declaration, US Isolationism, League of Nations, collective security, Aaland Islands, Mosul, Greek Bulgarian clash, Vilna, Russo-Polish War, Greek Turkish War, Memel, Corfu Incident, Anglo-American Guarantee, disarmament, Washington Conference, Geneva Conference, London Naval Conference, Second London Naval conference, Ramsay MacDonald, Locarno, Locarno Spring, Ruhr Crisis, hyperinflation, Gustav Stresemann, the Dawes Plan, Kellogg Briand Pact, Young Plan, Hoover Moratorium, Lausanne Conference, Wall Street Crash, Protectionism, Depression, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Mukden Incident, Japanese militarism, Manchukuo, Lytton Report, Manchuria, Benito Mussolini, Ethiopia/Abyssinia, Sanctions, Wal Wal Incident, Haille Selassie, Hoare Laval Pact, Adolph Hitler, the Saar, Remilitarization of the Rhineland,
PAPER 1 HELPFUL HINT AND PRACTICE TEST
When the French invaded the Ruhr in 1923 it was in response to the German failure to pay reparations stipulated by the Treaty of Versailles. The French move was also motivated by their need to make a show of strength and determination in the wake of the failure of the Anglo American Guarantee and in response to, in their view, German defiance. The French hoped to send a message that there would be severe repercussions should Germany fail to pay and to let the Germans know they were steadfast in their determination to keep Germany weak. The French hoped to assert their stature in the European system where they were increasingly isolated. Unfortunately, the invasion of the Ruhr had the exact opposite effect for the French, leaving it’s reputation in tatters and its relative position among the other European powers quite weakened. Outside of France, however, the crisis itself was quite valuable in promoting European stability and peace between 1923 and 1929, as it helped spawn several international political and economic agreements and, more importantly, helped bring states like the USA out of their self imposed isolation, and states like Germany and the Soviet Union into decision making process.
As stated clearly in source D, the Ruhr crisis was a disaster for the French, as two non Frenchmen, Charles Dawes (American) and Reginald McKenna (English) ended up leading the committees responsible for its resolution. The LON was elevated in its power to oversee disarmament and, in the French view, tied their hands in regards to future moves. Source B also supports the idea that the crisis was bad for France, as the Daews Committee left the French policy at “Anglo American mercy”, led to the defeat of Poincare, and helped restore Germany to prominence through the financial restructuring of the TOV at the insistence of the Americans and British.
The invasion initially hurt the German economy, leading to strikes and eventually the disastrous decisions that led to hyperinflation. The economic chaos also put Germany in a position where it was threatened even more by prospect of falling to Bolshevism, a message highlighted clearly by source C. Source E also points out the threat posed by extreme groups on the right which threatened the “continued existence of the Weimar Republic”...
The crisis, however, albeit unintentionally, also provided an important opportunity to revise the TOV and stabilize the economic and political situation in Europe...
Partial Exemplar Question 4
THE US REACTION TO THE TREATY
OOPS! I FORGOT TO DO MY SLIDES!
Investigate the Participants, Issues, Provisions, and Effects of your Treaty
Evaluate one of your sources answering the question "With reference to origin and purpose, discuss the values and limitations of the source."
Analyze one of the sources in your text relating to the treaty and answer the question "What is the message conveyed in this source?"
Come up with a Prezi giving an overview of the treaty, your source analysis, and your evaluation.
Read the sources and understand how they relate to the question.
Use each source in a relevant paragraph to support your points. Specifically mention the sources! "As source C suggests"
THE GREAT DEPRESSION & THREATS TO PEACE
HOW DID THE DEPRESSION AFFECT INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS?
The Great Depression is the
single greatest factor
in the collapse of peace.
Led to aggression and the collapse of international cooperation in Manchuria
Exposed collective security and the League of Nations were exposed as hollow concepts.
It brought Hitler to power. Before the Depression, the Nazis were a fringe party with little support.
Weakened the United Kingdom and France and stymied their ability and devotion to maintaining peace.
Allowed Mussolini to unleash aggression on Abyssinia and brought an end to the Stresa Front.
Crushed the spirit of most countries. Democracies demanded their leaders focus on domestic issues and engage in protectionist economic measures.
Destroyed all the good will and optimism of the Kellogg Briand Pact and the Locarno Agreement.
WHY DID THE JAPANESE WANT MANCHURIA?
Economically, Japan was struggling. It had sustained its impressive industrialization through the export of goods, primarily to the United States.
When many countries passed protectionist measures in regards to trade, Japan suffered immensely.
Military leaders put pressures on the democratically elected government to solve the situation by invading Manchuria, a resource rich province of China. At the time, the region was autonomous and under the control of a warlord.
Japan used this as justification, claiming their economic interests in the area were threatened.
Racial views of the Chinese also made the invasion easier to justify.
In 1932, the Japanese invaded, claiming they had been attacked by Chinese soldiers. They quickly set up the puppet state of Manchukuo.
WHY DID THE LEAGUE (and the Americans) FAIL IN THE MANCHURIAN CRISIS?
The League did not view the conflict in the Far East to be central to peace.
Neither the British or the Americans seemed willing to take the lead in intervening. Each had begun to follow a policy of appeasement.
Neither France or Britain had the bases in the Pacific to support an effective challenge. Despite having a large Navy, the Brits were not in a good position to engage its warships in the Far East. Britain's navy was experiencing a mutiny over pay cuts at the time.
None of the major powers had vital interests in the region. The interests that they did have might be threatened even more should they take action against the Japanese.
The LON had no military forces of its own, so it could not respond with anything more than moral condemnation even if it wanted to.
The LON did issue the Lytton report in 1932 which decided that the Japanese did not handle the situation well.
In response, the Japanese left the League of Nations and incorporated Manchukuo into their growing empire.
What is the message conveyed in the cartoon?
Why did the Italians want Abyssinia?
Proximity. Abyssinia bordered two other Italian colonies in Africa, Italian Somaliland & Eritrea.
Resources/Markets. Abyssinia had Oil Reserves and provided territory for Italians to emigrate to. Indigenous Abyssinians could be used in future conflicts.
Opportunity. Abyssinia was the only territory in Africa unclaimed by European powers.
Revenge. Abyssinia had successfully defeated the Italians at the Battle of Adawa in 1896
Alliances. As part of the Stresa Front, Italy believed France and Britain would support Italy's invasion in return for support against the larger threat: Hitler and Germany.
Prestige: Mussolini saw Abyssinia as a territory through which he could assert Italian control on the way to building an Italian empire.
WHY DID THE LEAGUE FAIL TO PROTECT ABYSSINIA?
France and Britain caught in a difficult position
Public opinion did not want a war due to Depression and memories of WWI.
Feared alienating Italy and losing support for the Stresa Front.
Public opinion did not want a war due to Depression and memories of WWI.
They wanted either to support the principles of collective security as laid out in the LON or placate Italy and solidify her as an ally in the face of a rearming Germany.
In the end, they accomplished neither
In 1934, Italy bolstered its forces in Somaliland
In 1935, the invasion began and the LON immediately imposed sanctions on Italy.
Sanctions were weak: did not include oil and other war materials. the Brits also did not close off Italian access to the Suez Canal
F and B proposes the Hoare Laval Pact, which would give significant concessions to the Italians but kept part of Abyssinia independent.
The Pact failed when public opinion in France and Britain came out against it.
By 1936 the fighting was over and the Italians were in possession of the entire nation. Abyssinia ceased to exist as an independent state.
Nail in the coffin for the League of Nations
League exposed as a paper tiger
Message to Hitler was that he could do whatever he liked.
Pushed Mussolini into the arms of Hitler. The Stresa Front was dead.
Hitler reoccupied the Rhineland in 1936, sensing the LON's weakness.
Significance of Abyssinian Crisis cannot be overstated, especially for the Abyssinians.
What was the Significance of the Abyssinian Crisis?