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Semester 1 EOC REVIEW

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nicholas waters

on 13 January 2014

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Transcript of Semester 1 EOC REVIEW

Unit 3: Cells in Living Things
Unit 4: Cellular Energy
Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration
Unit 5: Cell Division
Unit 1
The Study of Life and the Nature of Science
Unit 2: The Chemistry of Life
Semester 1 EOC REVIEW
What is the goal of science?
To understand, explain, model, and predict events in the natural world
What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?
A hypothesis is a tentative explanation - a testable prediction - of how the natural world should behave
A theory is a well-tested explanation of how the world works based on repeatable, experimental evidence
Describe a Controlled Experiment
A controlled experiment involves:
Identifying as many variables as possible and keeping all but one constant.
The variable that changes is the independent - or "manipulated" variable
The variable that responds to the change is the dependent - or "responding" - variable
Ultimately, you are trying to determine if a relationship exists between two variables
What are the standard metric units of measurement for ...
Volume =
Mass =
Length =
Meter (m)
Kilogram (kg)
Liter (l)
How many meters are in 10.5 cm?
1 cm = .01 m (or 100 cm = 1 m)
10.5 cm
100 cm
1m
??? M
=
Calculate the total magnification of a light microscope that has a 10 eyepiece lens and a 100x objective lens
objective
eyepiece
total magnification =
magnification of eyepiece lens X magnification of objective lens
10
x
100
=
1000x
Identify and describe the characteristics of living things
Made of cells
Can reproduce
Have DNA (universal genetic code)
Grow and Develop
Obtain and use materials (matter) and energy
Respond to their environment
Maintain stable internal conditions ("HOMEOSTASIS")
Change over time
Describe how biology can be studied @ different levels
molecules
cells
groups of cells
organism
population
community
ecosystem
biome
biosphere
(tissues - organs - organ systems)
Describe the Structure of an Atom
Compare and Contrast the two main types of chemical bonds:
Ionic Bonds
Covalent Bonds
Table Salt: Sodium Chloride
Describe the structure and properties of water
H20
=
1 atom of oxygen
2 atoms of hydrogen
Compare and contrast suspensions and solutions
Solution
Suspension
"water and an undissolved substance"
"A mixture made of two substances evenly distributed together"
List the pH ranges for acids and bases
Describe the function of the four classes of macromolecules:
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Lipids
= energy storage
= movement, speeding-up chemical reactions (i.e. building stuff and breaking stuff apart), cell-level communication/signaling
= cell membrane component ...phospholipid bylayer...regulates what enters and leaves the cell. Also for protection and cushioning
= storing genetic information
building block =
building block =
building block =
building block =
nucleotides
fatty acid + glycerol
amino acids
monosaccharide
Define chemical reaction
example:
"process that changes one substance into another substance by altering/ re-arranging chemical bonds"
identify:
products
reactants
Explain the importance of enzymes
Enzymes speed-up the rate of chemical reactions...
They build biological molecules (proteins, nucleic acids)
They break apart biological molecules (digestive enzymes)
They "fix carbon ("RUBISCO in plants)
Without enzymes, the reactions that keep all organisms alive would happen too slowly...and thus, life would not exist! ...
"Water is the most abundant inorganic compound in most living things"
"Enzymes are your body's workers. They are responsible for constructing, synthesizing, carrying, dispensing, delivering, and eliminating the many ingredients and chemicals our body uses in its daily business of living."
Explain the Cell theory...
1. All living things are made of cells
2. All new cells come from pre-existing cells
3. Cells are the basic unit of form and function in living things
Cell theory
Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells...
Compare and contrast plant and animal cells...
Identify the function of the following major organelles:

nucleus
ribosomes
cell membrane
cell wall
mitochondria
chloroplast
large central
cell membrane
regulates what enters and leaves the cell
Compare and contrast: diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, and active transport
All of these processes involve the movement of substances across a cell's membrane...
Levels of organization in multi-cellular organisms...
Compare and Contrast Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
Identify the role of ATP and discuss how energy is released from this molcule
Describe the Process of Photosynthesis
Light Independent Reactions
Light dependent Reactions
Chloroplast Structure
Explain this graph...and relate it to factors that affect photosynthesis:
Describe the process of cellular respiration...
Compare and contrast alcoholic and lactic acid fermentation....
Identify problems that growth causes for cells...
1. Cells do not grow forever -

2. Growth causes DNA overload -
the cell cannot make proteins fast enough because the DNA is being "read" at maximum capacity
they die
3. As cells grow, volume increases faster than surface area
As the surface area-to-volume ratio decreases, the membrane cannot exchange materials fast enough
Describe the events of the cell cycle
M
Describe the stages of mitosis
What's the difference between mitosis and cytokinesis? (they're both in M phase)
is the division of the nucleus (
one cell with 2 nuclei
)
Mitosis
Cytokinesis
is the division of the cytoplasm (
two cells
)
What is cancer?
Uncontrolled (or out-of-control) cell growth caused by a series of mutations
Gene mutations associated with cancer:
Proto-oncogenes
Tumor Suppressor Genes
Cancer develops over time
And eventually spreads (metastasis)
Describe the formation of gametes
Meiosis - "Reduction Division"
Meiosis I
Meiosis II
Homologous pairs line-up, forming "tetrads"
Meiosis produces 4 HAPLOID gametes
What's the difference between haploid and diploid?
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