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Consumerism and Complementary and Alternative Medicine

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Abbagail Harp

on 2 December 2013

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Transcript of Consumerism and Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Consumerism and Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Taking Responsibility for Your Health Care
Self Care
practicing behaviors that promote health, prevent disease and minimize reliance on the formal medical care system.
When to Seek Help
Knowing when to seek medical or physician assistance when home self-care reaches its max potential.
The Placebo Effect
an apparent cure or improved state of health brought about by a substance product or procedure that has no generally recognized therapeutic value.
Assessing Health Professions
Factors to Consider when choosing a Health Care Provider
Communication Skills
Licensing
Accreditation
Back-up plans
Quality of Care
Comfortableness
Types of Allopathic Health Care Providers
Conventional Health Care
Evidence based
Primary Care Practitioner
Osteopaths
Ophthalmologist
Optometrist
Dentists
Nurses
Nurse Practitioners
Physician Assistant
Placebo Effect
Defensive Medicine
The use of medical practices designed to overt the possibility of malpractice suits
Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)
Complementary Medicine
Used together with conventional medicine as part of a modern integrated-medicine approach
Alternative Medicine
Has been traditionally used in place of conventional medicine
following a special diet or using herbal remedy to treat cancer instead of using radiation, surgery, or other conventional treatments
Why are so many people using alternative medicine?
Types of CAM and Alternative Medical Systems
Major Categories of Complementary/Alternative:
NCCAM
NIH
CAM
Manipulative and body-based practices
Mind-body medicine
Energy Medicine
Natural Products
Alternative Medical Systems
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)
Ayurveda
Naturopathy
Homeopathy
Other Alternative Medical Systems

CAM: Manipulative and Body-Based Practices
Chiropractic Medicine
Massage Therapy
Bodywork
CAM: Energy Medicine
Acupuncture
one of the oldest form and most popular among Americans
Acupressure
similar to acupuncture; used without needles
Other CAM Practices
Mind-Body medicine
meditation
hypnosis
art therapies
mental healing
Psychoneuroimmunology
interactions between:
relaxation
biofeedback
meditation
yoga
laughter
exercise
other activities
Other CAM Practices Cont.
Natural Products
Limited FDA regulations
includes:
vitamins
minerals
herbs
other botanicals
amino acids
Herbal Remedies
Antioxidants
Plant stanols/sterols
Oat fiber
Sunflower seeds and oil
Soy protein
Garlic
Ginger
Yogurt
Nutraceuticals
combine nutritional and pharmaceutical benefits
bolster the immune system
Making Choices about CAM Treatments and Over-the-Counter Drugs
Choosing Health Products: Prescription and OTC Drugs
Prescription Drugs
2/3rds of doctor visits result in prescriptions
25% increase in prescription drug use
Hazards and Complications are common
Center for Drug Evaluation and Research
Medications Online: Buyer Beware
Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS)
Buy only from US state-licensed pharmacy sites
Do not buy from sites that do not require prescriptions or offer first time medications without first seeing a physician
Use legitimate websites that have a licensed pharmacist to answer questions
Do not provide any personal information
Generic Drugs
Medications sold under a chemical name rather than a brand name
Minor ingredient changes that may cause adverse reactions
Debate on whether efficacy is that of brand name

Always ask physician for a generic option

Choosing Health Products: Prescription and OTC Drugs, Cont.
Over-the-Counter (OTC)Drugs:
Nonprescription substances used for self-medication
45% of Americans reported taking at least one prescription drug in the past month; 18% report taking three or more
Americans spend billions eery year on OTC drugs
Many experience adverse side effects due to not following directions or reading labels correctly
FDA Regulated Label
Choosing Health Products: Prescription and OTC Drugs, Cont.
Pain Reliever:
Aspirin: Bayer, Bufferin
Acetaminophen: Tylenol
Ibuprofen: Advil, Motrin
Naproxen Sodium: Aleve, Naprosyn
Side Effects:
Stomach problems
Overdose
prolonged overuse liver damage
Allergic reactions
Reye's syndrome

Choosing Health Products: Prescription and OTC Drugs, Cont.
Cold and Allergy:
Antihistamines: Claritin, Benadryl, Zyzal
Decongestants: Sudafed, DayQuil, Allermed
Side Effects:
Drowsiness
Dizziness
disturbed coordination
Side Effects:
Nervousness
Restlessness
Sleep problems
Drowsiness
Nausea

Choosing Health Products: Prescription and OTC Drugs, Cont.
Antacids:
Tums, Maalox
Side Effects:
Reduced mineral absorption
concealment of ulcer
interference of antibiotics
worsened high blood pressure
aggravated kidney problems
Laxatives:
Ex-Lax, Citrucel
Side Effects:
Reduced mineral absorption
Dehydration
Dependency

Choosing Health Products: Prescription and OTC Drugs, Cont.
Sleep aids and relaxants:
Nytol, Sleep-Eze, Sominax, NyQuil
Side Effects:
Drowsiness
Dizziness
Lack of Coordination
Dependency
OTC Warnings
Herbal Remedies and Supplements
A new study shows that herbal and dietary supplements are the most commonly used type of CAM, with over a third of adults over the age of 50 reporting usage of herbal supplements in the past year
Herbal remedies are not to be taken lightly
FDA has warned against herbal products containing kava, which may be associated with severe liver damage
Some plants are poisonous and should be avoided
If combined with other drugs, may pose an unwanted interaction side effect
Properly trained herbalists and homeopaths must receive graduate-level training in special training programs, such as:
Herbal nutrition and Traditional Chinese Medicine

Herbal Remedies and Supplements, Cont.
Herbal Medicines:
Tend to be milder
Produce effects slowly
Less likely to cause toxicity
Still contain many chemicals as synthetics do
To much of any can cause problems
Tinctures:
Extracts from fresh or dried plants
Contain a high percentage of grain alcohol to prevent spoilage
Best herbal option
Freeze-dried are very stable and wallet-safe
Standardized are often in a pill or capsule and are among the more reliable forms
Herbal Supplements
Herbal Remedies and Supplements, Cont.
Strategies to Protect Supplement Consumers' Health:
Always find information on herbal supplements and nutraceuticals
NCCAM
Cochrane Collaboration's review on Complementary and alternative medicine
Every herbal supplement and functional food must be FDA approved
Pharmacopeia
tests selected products, including herbal supplements, for safety and purity standards
"USP Dietary Supplement Verified" certified
Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act
requires specific information on dietary supplements
Health Insurance
Purpose:
pool money into a reserve and pulled out when someone needs the funds
does not matter how much you specifically have contributed
Today's system:
50 million uninsured
25 million of 19-64 are under insured
75% of uninsured are workers or dependents of workers
1/4 of uninsured are under 16 years of age
18 to 24 year olds report being without insurance at least once
twice as likely to be uninsured at 45 to 64 years old
Uninsured:
6 % of college
2% do not know
33% of Latinos/American Indians/Alaskan Natives
18.9% of African Americans
17.1% of Caucasian Americans
Health Insurance, Cont.
Private Health Insurance:

Major Medical
branched out to routine treatments
Deductibles:
front-end payments
Co-Payments
set amounts of paid per service
Coinsurance
percentage you must pay

Preexisting Condition clauses:
limit insurance liability
more common in small group plans
Waiting period:
time period before coverage starts
Upper or Lifetime limit:
commonly $250,000
Health Insurance, Cont.
Managed Care:
health care delivery system consiting of a network of providers and facilities linked contractually to deliver health benefits within a set annual budget
62.8 million Americans
Indemnity insurance:
pays providers on a fee-for-service basis
HMOs
Health Maintenance Organizations
wide range of services for fixed prepaid amount
checkups, labs tests, surgeries
PPOs
Preferred provider organization
network of independent doctors and hospitals
POS
Point of service
Health Insurance, Cont.
Medicare and Medicaid
funds 35% of total U.S. health spending
Medicare:
government pays 80% of coverage for people over 65
covers 99% of people over 65
all who are totally and permanently disabled and end-stage kidney failure
DRGs
Diagnosis-related groups
how hospitals would be reimbursed
Medicaid:
federal-state welfare program
36 million people
Medicare
Issues Facing the Health Care System
Cost:
$2.3 trillion annually
$7,500 per person
18.3% GDP
Reach $4 trillion by 2019
Reasons:
for-profit industry
excess administration costs
duplication of services
aging population
obesity
inactivity
demand for new technologies
crisis-oriented care vs. preventative
inappropriate use of services
Access:
133 million suffer from chronic health conditions
Access to care is determined by:
insurance
supply of providers and facilities
proximity to care
ability to maneuver in health care system
health status

Issues Facing the Health Care System, Cont.
The Debate over Universal Coverage:
Arguments for:
Human right
Preventative health behaviors and preventative medicine practices
Focus on patient care rather than insurance procedures
Taxes already pay for substantial amount
Good for economic productivity
Arguments against:
Health care is not a human right
Individual responsibility to ensure person health
Rise in taxes or spending cuts elsewhere
Profit motives, competition, and ingenuity lead to cost control
Providing a right to health care is bad for economic productivity
Issues Facing the Health Care System, Cont.
Quality and Malpractice:
Quality:
Education
Licensure
Certification/Registration
Accreditation
Peer Review
Malpractice litigation
Outcome measurements
Medical Waste:
Medical Waste Tracking Act of 1988
2 million tons
90% is incinerated
Pharmaceutical waste
54% of consumers throw them in the trash
35% flush them down the toilet
Search for organizations that recycle unused medicine
ask your pharmacist
Health Care Spending
Health Care Crisis
Advocating During a Health Care Crisis
Strategies:
Know your right as a patient
Find out about informed consent procedures
Remain with loved one as a person advocate
Check the health care providers credentials
Be considerate of the care providers
Be patient with the patient
Full transcript