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Psycholinguistics

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Rocio Tut

on 6 December 2016

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Transcript of Psycholinguistics

Psycholinguistics
Universidad de Quintana Roo
Dalny Abihail González Castillo
Jimmy Margarito Poot May
Noemi Del Rocio Tut Balam
Midterm Presentation
Brain Structure
Where is the language allowed?
Arcuate fasciculus
Broca's Area
Wernicke's Area
Its main function is the comprehension of language...
It is known to connect Broca's area and Wernicke's area.

The mouth motor areas
The Larynx
The tongue
Which in turn send the signals to the corresponding muscles, thus allowing...
The creation of sounds.
... and the ability to communicate coherent ideas, whereas the language is vocal, written
or signed.
First Language Learning
Second Language Learning
It is involved in the production of speech.
Neurons from Broca's area send signals to:
Processes of First Language
Acquisition
Factors affecting Acquisition
Second Language Learning/Acquisition
Factors Affecting Second Language Acquisition
Its function is the ability to respond to heard speech.
Associations

Target Language
Pre-talking
(0-6 months)
Babbling
(6-8 months)
Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis
Monitor Hypothesis
Input Hypothesis
Affective Filter
Natural Order
Universal Grammar
Holophrastic
(9-18 months)
(Behaviourism)
(Behaviourism)
(Innatism)
Two-word
(18-24 months)
Telegraphic
(24-30 months)
Vocalizations in form of involuntary crying, cooing and gurgling-sounds.
They start uttering different vowels and consonant sounds.
first recognizable word like mommy, daddy.
Sentences made by combination of two words, e.g. ‘baby chair’, ‘mommy milk’.
Vocabulary beyond 50 words.
Lack of morphological, syntactic and grammatical structure.
Children start producing multiple word sentences, e.g. ‘cat drink milk’, ‘daddy go bye-bye’.
Vocabulary continue to grow.
Pronunciation become better.
People with damage to the Broca's area exhibit problems speaking.
People with damage to Wernike's area often can speak fluently and be grammatically correct, but they speak nonsense.
Krashen's Hypotesis
5 System of
Language Rules

#1 Phonology
and Phonetics
#2 Morphology
#3 Syntax
#4 Semantics
#5 Pragmatics
Expressive Aphasia
Receptive Aphasia
Lateralization
Sound System
Phonemes
Input 1
Input 2
Input - 1
RUN
SLEEP
The learner form associations
between words and objects or events.
The learner uses simple structures in the target language.
The learners acquire the language
of their environment.
EXTERNAL FACTORS
INTERNAL FACTORS
Acquisition = Unconsciously
Learning = Consciously
The brain is divided into two hemispheres.
The Right Hemisphere
The Left Hemisphere
In 97% of the population language is represented in the left hemisphere, with little if any contribution from the right hemisphere.
The right hemisphere must be considered functionally inferior to the left since it lacks significant speech representation. Therefore it has been termed the "non-dominant" hemisphere.
The areas involved in the central organization of language are appropriately the most advanced and latest developed neocortical zones.
It is not too surprising that this highest function would localize in the most advanced regions and further still that this function would tend to utilize the greatest expanse of advanced cortex, which happens to be localized on the left.
(some birds apparently have lateralization of their singing capabilities).
My name is
Dalny.
May I go to
the bathroom?
I am from
Venezuela
However, certain functions do tend to localize to the right hemisphere.
Also, the ability to generate verbal inflections and to detect tone of voice appears to be localized to the right hemisphere.
For example, the ability to recognize loss of function, visuospatially oriented perception and behavior, and musicality all appear to be predominantly functions of the right cerebral hemisphere.
SCHOOL
HOME
Words formation
Morphemes
The way words are ordered and combined.
The learned system acts only as
an editor making minor changes
and polishing what the acquired
system has produced.
Applies only to language acquisition.
Comprehensible input is input that contains a structure that is “a little beyond” the current understanding.
Variables can effect the acquisition of a second language by preventing information about the second language from reaching the language areas of the mind.
(Boredom, Fear, Resistance to Change)

The meaning of language is created by the use of words and sentences.
A set of rules for language use
in different contexts.
Social interaction.
effective communication.
The acquisition of grammatical
structures occurs
in a predictable sequence.

AGE
1.- Neglected children not exposure to language
2.- Delayed language development.
3.- Never learn to use language like others their age.
Socioeconomic status
Different use of language by caregivers.
Differential access to quality schools and literacy materials.
AGE
Hearing
Babies who are hard of hearing and whose hearing difficulties are not detected can experience a delay in language development
Children are efficiently motivated
to acquire a new language. An old learner
have to usually struggle to achieve.
Speech and Language Disorders
PERSONALITY
Difficulties with the comprehension and/or production of language.
Difficulties with pronunciation.
Introverted or anxious learner
usually make slower progress,
particularly in the development
of oral skills.
MOTIVATION
Multilingualism
Education
Motivation is correlated strongly
with educational achievement
students who enjoy language learning and take pride in their progress will do letter than those who don't.
EXPERIENCES
The use of two or more languages in the home can affect language development and cause a slight delay.
Development of literacy skills and academic language depends on access to formal schooling.
CURRICULUM
INSTRUCTIONS
Learners who have acquired
general knowledge and experience
are in a stronger position to develop a new language.
ACCESS TO
NATIVE LANGUAGE
MOTIVATION
CULTURE AND STATUS
COGNITION
NATIVE LANGUAGE
Students with greater cognitive
abilities will make faster progress.
students who learn a second
language which is from the same
language family as their first language
have much easier tasks than
those who don't.
For learner students it is important
that the totality of their educational
experience is appropriate to their needs.
Some language teachers are better
than others at providing appropriate
and effective instructions for the students
in thier classrooms.
Students who are given continuing, appropriate encouragement to learn by their teachers and parents will generally fare better than those who are not
There is some evidence that
students in situation where their own culture has a lower status than that of the culture
in which they are learning the language make slower program.
The opportunity to interact with
native speakers both within
and outside of the classroom
is a significant advantage.
Multiword
(30+ Months)
5 y/o: speaks complete sentences, ask questions, give commands, narrate events etc.
6 y/o: knows about 13000 words.
8 y/o: knows about 28,300 wordst their grammar become like adults.
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