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Transcript of Japanese Period
by Gonzalo K. Flores
Filipino Music during this Period
Filipino Poetry during this Period
The common theme of most poems during the Japanese occupation was nationalism, country, love, and life in the barrios, faith, religion and the arts.
Three types of poems emerged during this period.
- a poem of free verse that the Japanese liked. It is made up of seventeen (17) syllables divided into three (3) lines. The first line has (5) syllables, the second – (7) syllables and the third – (5) syllables. It is allegorical in meaning, short and covers a wide scope in meaning.
• Between 1941-1945, Philippine literature in English came to a halt. Except for the
Tribune and the Philippine Review, Pillars, Free Philippines, and Filipina
, almost all newspapers in English were stopped by the Japanese.
has described Filipino writing during the Japanese occupation as being pessimistic and bitter.
• Filipino literature also experienced renewed attention because writers in English turned to writing in Filipino.
who used to write in English turned to Filipino.
• The weekly
was placed under strict surveillance until was managed by a Japanese named Ishiwara.
• The only contact with the outside world was done with utmost secrecy through the underground radio program called
“Voice of Freedom”.
was favored by the Japanese military authority and writing in English was consigned to a limbo. Japanese were able to influence and encourage the Filipino in developing the vernacular literature.
Hila mo'y tabak…
Ang bulaklak nanginig
Sa paglapit mo.
You’re pulling a saber
The flowers shivered
When you approached.
Sa tahimik na ilog
By the quiet river
Filipino Short Stories during the Japanese Period
The best writings in 1945 were selected. As a result of this selection, the following got the first three prizes:
First Prize: Narciso Reyes with his LUPANG TINUBUAN
Second Prize: Liwayway Arceo’s UHAW ANG TIGANG NA LUPA
Third Prize: NVM Gonzales’ LUNSOD NAYON AT DAGAT-DAGATAN
- like the haiku, it is short, but has measure and rhyme. Each line has 17 syllables and is also allegorical in meaning.
TANAGA ni Ildefonso Santos
(LIWAYWAY, Oktubre 10, 1943)
Palay siyang matino
Nang humangi’y yumuko,
Ngunit muling tumayo,
Nagkabunga ng ginto.
He’s a behaved palay
Who bowed when the wind blew
But stood up again
And bore gold
Filipino Drama during this Period
A few of the playwriters were:
1. Jose Ma. Hernandez
2. Francisco Soc Rodrigo
3. Clodualdo del Mundo
4. Julian Cruz Balmaceda
The Philippine Literature in English (1941-1945)
Philippine literature in English experienced a dark period. The few who dared to write did so for their bread and butter or for propaganda.
Writings that came out during this period were journalistic in nature.
Noteworthy writer of the period was Carlos P. Romulo who won the Pulitzer Prize for his bestsellers I SAW THE FALL OF THE PHILIPPINES, I SEE THE PHILIPPINES RISE and his MOTHER AMERICA AND MY BROTHER AMERICANS.
Journalists include Salvador P. Lopez, Leon Ma. Guerrero, Raul Manglapuz and Carlos Bulosan.
Nick Joaquin produced THE WOMAN WHO LOOKED LIKE LAZARUS. Fred Ruiz Castro wrote a few poems.
F.B Icasiano wrote essays in The Philippine Review. Carlos Bulosan’s works included THE LAUGHTER OF MY FATHER (1944), THE VOICE OF BATAAN, 1943, SIX FILIPINO POETS, 1942, among others, Alfredo Litiatico published With Harp and Sling and in 1943, Jose P. Laurel published Forces that Make a Nation Great.
HOW MY BROTHER LEON BROUGHT A HOME A WIFE by Manuel E. Arguilla (Short Story)
- The theme of 'How My Brother Leon Brought Home a Wife' is that one must preserve, even through certain sacrifices, in order to reach one's goal.
LITERATURE AND SOCIETY by Salvador P. Lopez (Essay)
- This essay discusses the personality of different persons and also the literature and the daily news that concentrate more on political issues.
HIS NATIVE SOIL
– by Juan Laya (Novel)
The Commonwealth Literary Awards gave prizes to meritorious writers. Those who won were:
LIKE THE MOLAVE
– by Rafael Zulueta da Costa (Poetry) - is one regarding how the people of the Philippines must work to make the nation stronger.
President Manuel L. Quezon’s autobiography
THE GOOD FIGHT
was published posthumously.
Radio broadcasts echoed the mingled fear and doubts in the hearts of the people.
Other writers of this period were Juan Collas (1944), Tomas Confesor (1945), Roman A. De la Cruz and Elisa Tabuñar.
• Playing and listening to music were among the leisure activities that somehow made life bearable for Filipinos.
• Japanese music was heard daily in radio broadcasts. Their songs were also taught in public schools.
• The performance of jazz and Western music identified with the allied nations of the war was prohibited.
• The first was a Japanese Musical Mission to the Philippines held on May 7, 1943, with the support of the New Philippine Musical Federation headed by Kosak Yamada.
• Concerts were also a common form of amusement for Filipinos at the time and the Metropolitan Theater became an important venue for cultural events.
• The Philippine Conservatory of Music, an affiliate of the Philippine Women’s University, was one of the few music schools in the country that opened during the war.
• The ten-year preparatory period, known as the Commonwealth regime, was rudely interrupted when the Japanese started the war in the Pacific.
• The Second World War was the war between the allied nations (US, Britain, China, France, and Soviet Russia) and the Axis nations (Germany, Italy, and Japan).
• December 8, 1941 (Pacific Time), Japan made sneak attacks on the military bases of America and Britain in Pearl Harbor, Singapore and the Philippines. So, the war in Europe spread to Asia.
The Japanese Attack
• On July 26, 1941, the Philippine Reserve and Regular Forces were incorporated into the United States Army under the command of General MacArthur. The combined forces were called the United States Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE).
• General MacArthur, on December 26, 1941, declared Manila an open city. Guns were withdrawn from the city in order to comply with the requirements of international law regarding an open city.
• On January 2, 1942, the advance elements of the Japanese invasion forces entered Manila from the north and the south. Manila became an occupied city.
“I Shall Return”
• When General MacArthur landed in Australia on March 17, 1942, MacArthur told the world, “I Shall Return!”
The Fall of Bataan And Corregidor
• Japanese leaflets asking Filipino soldiers to surrender and to dessert their American comrades-in-arms were dropped on Bataan to demoralize the USAFFE, but the courageous Filipino soldiers ignored the Japanese propaganda.
The Death March
• One of the cruelest atrocities by the Japanese during the Second World War was the infamous Bataan Death March in April 9, 1942.
• The march went from Mariveles, Bataan, to San Fernando, Pampanga under the hot tropical sun. From San Fernando, survivors were loaded to a box train and were brought to Camp O'Donnell in Capas, Tarlac.
Reorganization of the Government
• The Philippines was under Japanese military occupation from January 3, 1942 to July 5, 1945.
• On January 3, 1942 the Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Imperial Forces, General Masaharu Homma, issued a proclamation announcing the end of the American occupation and the purpose of the Japanese expedition.
• The Japanese declared martial law in the Philippines.
• They punished the Filipinos for any hostile acts against Japanese soldiers.
• They circulated new money with Japanese script. The Filipinos called it “Mickey Mouse Money”. Everything was sold at an astronomical price.
The Second Philippine Republic
• On January 21, 1942, the Japanese Premier, Hideki Tojo came to the Philippines. He launched a new plan for the happiness and prosperity of the Asians, called the “Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.” – it is a political doctrine promoted by Japan in the 1930s and 1940s.
• The top agency of Japanese propaganda was the KALIBAPI (Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas).
• Even the communists formed a guerilla army called the Huk or Hukbong Bayan Laban sa Hapon (HUKBALAHA). It was an anti-Japanese guerilla movement formed by the peasant farmers of Central Luzon.
Liberation of the Philippines
• On October 20, 1944, the American liberation forces landed at Palo, Leyte with more than 650 ships and four army divisions. General MacArthur announced to the Filipino people: “I have returned!”
End of the Second World War
• On August 6, 1945, the first atomic bomb was dropped on the city of Hiroshima.
• On August 9, 1945, another atomic bomb was dropped on the city of Nagasaki. These atomic bombs made the Japanese surrender on August 15, 1945.
3. KARANIWANGA ANYO (Usual Form)
– the usual and common form of poetry.
Kabibi, ano ka ba?
May perlas maganda ka
Kung idiit sa tainga
You’re a beautiful pearl
If you are pressed to the ears
Komiks during this Period (1942-1944)
• Tribune as Japanese propaganda on the latter days of 1941: Propaganda Corps - A group comprising Japanese civilian forming the group were: 6 novelist and poets 4 painters 9 newspaper and magazine 5 cameramen 2 broadcasting technician 4 printing technician 14 catholic priests 12 protestant ministers 5 movie people including a cameraman.
• As soon as the Japanese entered Manila, they seized and padlocked the offices of the Manila Bulletin and the Philippine Free Press.
• The first all-Filipino orchestra was organized. It performed an all-Philippine symphonic program in July 1942, with Francisco Santiago as conductor.
• The impresario; Alfredo Lozano organized the New Philippine Symphony Orchestra composed of Filipino musicians.
• Propaganda Corps also drew up a list of conditions for anyone who wished to go into publishing (Lent 1971, 203):
1. They must first secure a permit from the military,
2. They must submit to military censorship, and
3. Any violators of the above will be severely punished.
• The last American strip permitted to run in the Tribune was "The Phantom" by Lee Folk and Ray Moore starting on 16 January 1942.
• Those American comic strips served as entertainment and an escape for readers who found the news about the war gruesome and off- putting.
• The American strips were replaced by four komiks that were permitted by Japanese censors to appear on the pages of the Tribune from 1942 to 1944. These were:
"The Philosopher of the Sidewalk" by Gat which had a run of twenty-nine strips from 25 January 1942 to 16 August 1942.
"Now I've Seen Everything" by Ros
“The Boy 'Pilipino’“ by Keizo Simada
"The Kalibapi Family" by Tony Velasquez
• Tony Velasquez is known as the "Father of Filipino Komiks" because of his works before and after the Second World War.
• To support the language policy, the Tribune starting with its issue on 17 February 1942 came out with a weekly column called the "Japanese Corner."
• Radio station KZRH, one of the few permitted to broadcast in the Philippines. The program was called “Japanese Lessons" by a Professor Kusama,
• One of the earliest comic strips that tackled Nippongo was "Now I've Seen Everything" dated 23 August 1942.
• The Boy 'Pilipino”' focused on language in a way that the other komiks did not.