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FAR 117 Explained

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Vincenzo Fasano

on 2 December 2014

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Transcript of FAR 117 Explained

Part 117 Explained
Flight Time Limitations (Un-Augmented Crew)
121 vs. 117
8 hrs between required rest period
“Legal to start/legal to finish.”
Table A requirement
May be exceeded in flight if unforeseen event occurs after takeoff
Must be reported to FAA within 10 days
Table A
Flight Duty Period: Un-Augmented Operations
121 vs. 117
Not specified.
Table B
If un-acclimated, FDP times in table B must be reduced by 30 min
Address 3 concerns: circadian rhythms, time at work, number of flight scheduled
Table B
Flight Duty Period: Split Duty
121 vs. 117
Not specified.
Un-augmented crews only: Provides rest (sleep) opportunity in the middle of FDP
Rest will not count towards FDP
Addresses performance degradation of crews who conduct FDPs during the WOCL.
The rest opportunity must be provided between 22:00 and 05:00 local.
At least 3 hours, from the time the flight crewmember reaches the suitable accommodation.
Must be scheduled before the beginning of the FDP.
First segment of the FDP has been completed.
The combined time of the FDP and the rest does not exceed 14 hours.
Reserve Status
121 vs. 117
121 Subpart Q
Not included.
Spirit only uses short call reserve
Reserve availability period (RAP) may not exceed 14 hrs
FDP+RAP is less than FDP +4 hrs or 16 hrs from beginning of RAP (whichever is less)
Flight Duty Period Extensions
(FAR 117.19)
FDP may be extended greater than 30 minutes (but never more than 2 hours)
Pre Takeoff extensions: only once prior to 30 hr rest requirement in 117.25
The PIC and the company need to agree.
A FDP cannot be extended if it causes a flight crewmember to exceed the cumulative FDP limits in 117.23(c).
Post Takeoff extension: only once prior to 30 hr rest requirement in 117.25.
The PIC and the company need to agree.
Both extensions require FAA report within 10 days
If circumstances in company control
Circumstances and corrective actions.
Application of FDP extensions greater than 0:30 in any 168 hour period

FDP on day 8 is illegal if it is extended more than 0:30 beyond the scheduled FDP limit
Airport/Standby reserve (ASB) is considered duty and part of a FDP.
Short Call Reserve (SCR) is considered duty
Long Call Reserve (LCR) is not duty, however crewmember is not on rest
Airport/Standby Reserve
Short-Call Reserve
Cumulative Limitations
121 vs. 117
1,000 hours in any calendar year
100 hours in any calendar month
30 hours in any 7 consecutive days
1,000 hours in any 365 consecutive calendar days.
100 hours in any 672 consecutive hours.
190 FDP hours in any 672 consecutive hours.
60 flight FDP hours in any 168 consecutive hours.
Rest Period
121 vs. 117
24 consecutive hrs during any 7 consecutive days
9 consecutive hrs of rest for less than 8 hrs of scheduled flight time
10 consecutive hrs of rest for more than 8 but less than 9 hrs of scheduled flight time.
11 consecutive hrs of rest for 9 hrs or more of scheduled flight time.
30 consecutive hrs in any 168 consecutive hr period.
10 hrs between FDP or RAP w/ 8 uninterrupted hrs of sleep opportunity.*
If away from theater for more than 168 hrs, must get 56 consecutive hrs of rest
In a new theater, crewmember needs 36 consecutive hrs of rest to be acclimated

*If a crewmember determines that a rest period will not provide 8 uninterrupted hours of sleep opportunity, the crewmember must notify the certificate holder.
If deadhead transportation exceeds the applicable FDP in Table B (tail-end deadhead), the crewmember must be given a rest equal to the length of the deadhead transportation but not less than the required rest.

A Theater is a zone 60 degrees wide, relative to the departure station of the duty period.

JFK- 073 deg West
SFO- 122 deg West
CDG- 002 deg East

JFK to SFO is in the same Theater. 49 deg difference

JFK to CDG Exits the Theater. 75 deg difference

Consecutive Nighttime Operations
121 vs. 117
121 Subpart Q
Not Specified
No more than 3 consecutive FDPs that infringe on the WOCL.
May accept up to 5 consecutive FDPs that infringe on the WOCL if provided with at least a 2 hr opportunity to rest in a suitable accommodation during each of the consecutive nighttime FDP
Acclimated—Flight crewmember in a theater for 72 hrs or at least 36 consecutive hrs free from duty.

Airport/standby reserve—Flight crewmember required to be at an airport for a possible assignment.

Duty—Any task that a flight crewmember performs as required by the certificate holder
Flight duty period
Flight duty
Pre- and post-flight duties
Administrative work

Fatigue—State of reduced mental or physical performance capability.
Can reduce a flight crewmember's ability to safely operate an aircraft.
Fatigue risk management system (FRMS)—System to mitigate the effects of fatigue.
Data-driven process
Systematic method to monitor and manage safety risks associated with fatigue.

Fit for duty—Physiologically and mentally prepared.

Flight duty period (FDP)— Begins when a flight crewmember is required to report for a flight, a series of flights, or positioning or ferrying flights, and ends when the aircraft is parked after the last flight.
Duties performed before a flight segment or between flight segments without a required intervening rest period.
Deadhead transportation
Physiological night's rest—10 hours of rest including the hours of 0100 and 0700 at home base
Rest must encompass the hours of 0100 and 0700 at the acclimated location.

Reserve availability period (RAP)—Flight crewmember on short-call reserve required to be available to receive an assignment for FDP.

Flight Rest facility—A bunk or seat installed in an aircraft that provides sleep opportunity.
Class 1 rest facility—Flat sleeping position separate from both the flight deck and passenger cabin
Class 2 rest facility—Seat with a flat or near flat sleeping position separated from passengers by a minimum of a curtain
Class 3 rest facility—Seat in an aircraft that reclines at least 40 degrees and provides leg and foot support.
Short-call reserve— A period in which a flight crewmember is assigned to a RAP.

Split duty— A FDP that has a scheduled break in duty less than a required rest period.

Ground Suitable accommodation—Temperature-controlled facility with sound mitigation and the ability to control light
Requires a bed, bunk or in a chair that allows for flat or near flat sleeping position.
Only applies to ground facilities.

Theater—Area where local time at the flight crewmember's FDP departure point and arrival point differ by more than 60° longitude.

Window of circadian low (WOCL)— Period of maximum sleepiness between 0200 and 0559 during a physiological night.
Fatigue Education and Awareness Training Program.
121 vs. 117
121 Subpart Q
Not included.
Required for initial and recurrent classes
Must be initially approved by FAA. Must be updated every 2 yrs
Updates need only be accepted, unless major in nature
Spirit will use current fatigue education
Fitness for Duty
121 vs. 117
121 Subpart Q
Not included
Each crewmember must sign a fitness for duty statement
Must be signed for every flight segment
Company to terminate a flight crew member’s FDP if statement not signed
Fatigue Risk Management
121 vs. 117
Permits a certificate holder to exceed provisions in table A
Fatigue Risk Management System must provide equivalent level of safety
The FAA will interpret this provision narrowly and with prejudice
Spirit will use current Fatigue Management Plan
121 Subpart Q
Not included
121 vs. 117
121 Domestic operations only
Does not include part 91 operations
Excludes aircraft w/ 30 seats or less & payload less than 7500 lb

All 121 operations
Part 91 operations if conducted on behalf of certificate holder
No “tail end” ferries outside of duty limits
Does not apply to Flight Attendants or Cargo operations
A comparison with 121 Subpart Q
Part 117 Rest/Duty Requirements
Spirit Fatigue Risk Management

“A state of diminished physical and/or mental efficiency”

Types of Fatigue
Cumulative Fatigue
Transient Fatigue
Circadian Fatigue
Factors Affecting Fatigue
Time of Day
Amount of recent sleep
Time awake
Cumulative sleep debt
Time on task
Individual variation
Observable Effect of Fatigue
Lost of appetite
Weight loss
Slurred Speech
Physical and Emotional isolation
Decreased alertness and attention
When a pilot becomes fatigued to the extent that alertness
becomes a safety of flight concern, it is the crew member’s responsibility to remove themselves from, or refuse a duty assignment

Sleep Fundamentals
Critical requirement for brain development and for restoring alertness and Performance
Required sleeps ranges from 6 to 10 hours a day
Quality vs. quantity of sleep
Sleep patterns changes with age, alcohol and disorders
Circadian Rhythm
A person’s behavior and physiology controlled by an internal biological clock.
Body temperature,
Cognitive performance,
Alertness and sleep patterns
Sleep Disorders
Sleep Apnea
Rhythmic twitches
Affect of Fatigue on Flying Skills
Poor decision/judgment/mistakes
Slow reaction time
Poor communication
Tunnel vision
Nodding off
Bad mood
Fatigue Countermeasure, Prevention and Mitigation
Prevention Strategies
Operational Strategies
Takes place before work, during rest period
Minimize the sleep loss and circadian disruption caused by work demands
They are aimed at the physiological causes of fatigue
Focus on quality as well as quantity of sleep
Establish pre-sleep routine(s)
Manage your environment
Quiet; remove and or reduce disturbances
Comfortable sleeping surface
Eliminate or reduce food, caffeine, nicotine alcohol or strenuous exercise before sleep
Regular physical activity
Balance diet / Nutrient
Plan commute events to allow for an adequate rest prior to duty.
Minimize the impact of sleep loss and circadian disruption on alertness and on-the-job performance
They can temporarily relieve the symptoms of fatigue
Social Interaction
Physical Activity / Stretch
Diet and hydration
Naps when & where appropriate
Multiple Time Zones
The more time zones crossed, the longer it takes to acclimate. On average 1 day per number of time zones crossed
Adaptation occurs more quickly after a westward flight than after an eastward flight over the same number of time zones
Different people adapt at different rates. Ability to adapt decreases with age
Jet lag may cause disturbed sleep, increased sleepiness while awake, decreased physical or mental performance, increased feelings of fatigue and negative mood
Spirit Fatigue Risk Management Program (FRMP)
Objective and Scope
Outline policies and procedures for reducing fatigue related to flight crewmembers
Improve flight crewmember alertness.
To enhance Safety of Spirit Airlines flight operations.
Through flight crew fatigue awareness education/training
Mitigating flight crew fatigue risk to an acceptable level.
Program Elements
Senior Level Management Commitment
FRMP Policy and Procedure
Flight and Duty Time Limitations
Rest Requirement
Fatigue Reporting Policy
Education and Awareness Training
Fatigue Incident Reporting
System for Monitoring Flight Crew Fatigue
FRMP Evaluation
Spirit Fatigue Reporting Process
1. Safety Report
ASAP Report
FOQA Monitoring

2. With every fatigue call out (FCO), the pilot must submit a report within 24 hours of the end of the duty day in which the fatigue event occurred www.spiritairsafety.com

3. The report shall be reviewed by the FRMP Manager for accuracy, after which it is sent to fatigue management committee (FMC) for acceptance, investigation, and root cause analysis.

You are a reserve pilot assigned a RAP starting at 07:00.
You are then assigned a 4 legged FDP starting at 12:00
At what time must the FDP end?
You are scheduled to end the FDP at 2300
Can you accept this FDP?
What if you encounter a 20 minute delay during your FDP?
Can the FDP be extended
Is the company required to notify the PIC
Can the PIC refuse this extension
What if you encounter a 1 hour and 20 minute delay?
Can the FDP be extended?
Is the company required to notify the PIC?
Can the PIC refuse the extension?
What if the you have already flown an extended FDP before receiving 30 hours of rest?

FDP extension with RAP
Using Table B
LAS based crew begins a series of FDPs at KFLL
Check in is at 13:30 local, for a 3 legged FDP
What time do we use to enter table B?
How long will the FDP be?
At what time does the FDP have to end?
Is that FLL local time?
If a delay is encountered, can this FDP be extended?
On the ground vs. in the air
The above FDP ends in KLAX and you receive 12 hours of rest
The next day, you are assigned a 3 legged trip beginning at 11:00 local
What is your FDP limit?
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