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Using Technology in education

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on 25 September 2014

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Transcript of Using Technology in education

New Learning Technology
Technology-Based Instructions:
It is defined as the use of computers and other electronic devices to communicate the instruction to learners and provide a method for both learners and teachers to communicate each others.
Types of computer and web-based instructions (CBI):
Design considerations for individualized computed and web-based instruction:
Distance Instruction:
It is also called as the Community of Inquiry (COI) framework (Garrison et al, 2000). Which includes a group of learners that can construct learning through communication.

Simon, et al (2006), defines distance learning as learning that takes place at the same time in different location and it is mediated by electronic technology such as two ways audio and video.
Prepared by:
Heba F. Al-khozae.

Supervised by:
Dr. Wasileh Petro.

Technology-Based Instructions.
Affordances of technology-based Instruction.
Individualized Computer and Web-Based Instruction (CBI).
Characteristics of Individualized Computer and Web-Based Instruction (CBI).
Types of computer and web-based instructions (CBI).
Design considerations for individualized computed and web-based instruction.
Distance Instruction.
The elements that must be considered in the process of distance learning.
Distance Education and E-learning
At the end of this session learners will be able to:

Define the technology-Based Instructions.
Identify the affordances of technology-based Instruction.
Define Individualized Computer and Web-Based Instruction (CBI).
Identify the characteristics of Individualized Computer and Web-Based Instruction (CBI).
Differentiate between the types of computer and web-based instructions (CBI).
Identify design considerations for individualized computed and web-based instruction.
Identify distance instruction.
Identify the elements that must be considered in the process of distance learning.
Define e-learning.

The use of technology in education is a reflection of what is happening on a much larger scale in our communities.

We are in a period of history often referred to as
The Information Age
, which is the period in time characterized by a change in focus from industry to information.
Distance learning is one of the recently growing, common form of technology-based instruction in which the learning take place through (Keegan,1996):
Synchronous Instruction
aSynchronous Instruction
Affordances of technology-based Instruction:
It is saving time and money.
It is performing tasks endlessly without tiring or boring.
It is more efficient (functional), although not necessarily more effective (successful).
Current Technologies used in Education System
Internet and WWW
Asynchronous online learning
Web based applications accessible from anywhere
Email, Chat, Instant messaging for communication
Mobile Technology
Personal handheld computers
Cell Phones
Wireless devices – Wi-Fi, Bluetooth
Playstation/Xbox multimedia and application design
Video Transmission
Internet based
Cell phone based
Computer-based instructions (CBI) are learning programs that can be delivered through the following methods:
The learners‘ computer by installing the software on it.
The learners' computer that is connected to a server, CD-ROM, or DVD player.
The learners' computer that is connected to the internet (web-based), where the instruction is delivered through a web-browser or web-interface.
Characteristics of Individualized Computer and Web-Based Instruction (CBI):
Usually the learner
work on the instruction alone
, although a small group (2 to 4 learners) could be assigned together to work on it.
Usually the instruction is
. This means that the learner can control whether the goes backward or forward.
The instruction can
adapt with the learners' responses
, by offering different advances for different answers.
The instructions can
give different alternatives to each learner
, so that each learner can decide the sequence, content, or number of examples to study in a way that gives him a unique path of instructions.
1. Drill-and-Practice:
It is used on the form of flashcards for practicing the memory to remember information (rote learning), such as vocabulary, names, and symbols.
It can only be used to practice the already studied material rather than provide initial learning.

2. Tutorials:
It is similar to a textbook chapter or instruction manual.

It provides initial learning and helps the learner to develop understanding regarding a certain subject.

It is easy to update, easy to distribute among learners, and easy to incorporate interactive and static graphs, animations, and videos.

It is usually considered as an electronic page turner, thus it possibly requires internet access.

3. Simulations:
It presents a model that resemble a phenomena. It is cost-effective.
It may be considered as
(which reflects a real life situation with its setting and equipments, or
(like computer or game-simulators which may only include equipments that resembles the ones that is used in actual settings.
4. Games:
The instructional games create a motivational factor to learn more than the other types of CBI.
It usually includes a story and winning points which create competition and entertainment and increase the motivation for learning.
It can be designed for a single learner or multiple learners.
It includes using the world wide webs' search engines (such as Google) to obtain several results regarding a certain subject.

It can be used to link the subject with a base reference (such as encyclopedias), locate archived material, and accessing a large amount of information, and manipulate these information as needed.
5. Hypermedia:
1. Interface Design:
It includes page numbers, running heads, different levels of headings, and graphical features.
It withdraws the learner’s attention and may ease the learning process.
2. Learner Control:
It includes the learners' ability to take control of the instruction to support their learning (e.g. selecting several examples ranged from hard to easy, and asking for help).

This feature enables the learner to take one of the following decisions:
: in which the learner is allowed to control the pace of instruction (move forward, backward, stop, replay).
Controlling and choosing the context
of the lesson material and examples (Morrison et al, 1992).
Controlling the content
by choosing the amount of material and examples to study (Hannafin & Sullivan, 1996).
It is one of the affordances of CBI and it includes answer judging, and it can be given immediately after response or can be delayed.
3. Feedback:

It has basic five types :
Knowledge–of–result (KR)
which includes informing the learner with the result of his answer (whether it is correct or not only).

Knowledge–of–correct response (KCR):
which includes informing the learner only with the correct answer that is requested before proceeding.

3) Answer–until–correct (AUC):

which requires the learner to keep answering until he gets to the right answer.

4) Elaborated feedback:

which includes providing the learner with additional information other than the answer is correct or not, such as directions to relevant sections of the text, and providing suggestions regarding the cognitive strategies.

5) Response–Sensitive:

which includes directions for the learner to correct the wrong answer.
4. Remediation:
It is closely related to feedback in which the teacher should consider the method that should be used to correct the wrong responses.
This can be done by telling the learners to reread the material, increase the number of examples, and discussing the answers with the learners.

In computer–based instructions, the interaction is restricted in clicking a button, typing or speaking a word. Yet it should be carefully designed to engage the learner and increase his motivation to continue.
It has two components: cognitive activity, and behavioral one.
5. Designing interactions:
6. Using Multimedia:
It is the incorporation of both pictures (static and dynamic) and words in the instruction (Mayer, 2009), which results in a narrated animation.

It has two approaches:

Individualized Approach
to Distance Instruction: The learners are separated in time and location.

A Group Approach
to Distance Instruction: Keegan (1966) called it the virtual classroom, in which learners are separated in location but meet at the same time.
The elements that must be considered in the process of distance learning:
The cognitive presence
and critical thinking ability.

The social presence
, which includes the learners’ ability to be perceived as real in class.

Teaching presence
, which includes the previously prepared learning materials.
Distance education provided the base for e-learning's development.
E-learning is learning that involves the acquisition, generation and transfer of knowledge using information and communication technology (ICT).
Distance Education and E-learning
Any Questions
It's time to show your talents.
Using Self-Efficacy to Assess the Readiness of Nursing Educators and Students for Mobile Learning

The purpose of this study was to assess the self-efficacy of nursing faculty and students related to their potential use of mobile technology and to ask what implications this technology has for their teaching and learning in practice education contexts.

They used a cross-sectional survey design involving students and faculty in two nursing education programs in a western Canadian college.

Results showed a high level of ownership and use of mobile devices among the respondents. The median mobile self-efficacy score was 75 on a scale of 100, indicating that both faculty and students were highly confident in their use of mobile technologies and prepared to engage in mobile learning.
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