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The Renaissance & Reformation Notes

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Ron Kinyanjui

on 11 September 2015

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Transcript of The Renaissance & Reformation Notes

Black Death (1348-1353)
Killed 1/3 of Europe's population
Turned to God and Church for Relief
People became disenchanted with Church when people kept dying
Looked for explanations outside of Church and spiritual world
Contribution to Renaissance?
Trade and Commerce
Literally means "rebirth"
Discovery and Exploration
Decline of feudal system
Growth of Commerce
Printing Press

How did it begin?
Began in Northern/ Central Italy
Growth of City-States*
People no longer bound to land as in feudal society
Increase of Trade and Commerce
Crusaders* and merchants returned from the East with classical texts
Rise of Humanism
Emphasis on human interest and reason

Strong devotion to God and church & maintenance of a strict social hierarchy (feudal system*)
Constant warfare & decline of population in urban areas
Activities centered on getting to Heaven rather than life here on Earth
Surge of Classical learning & Values
New focus on art, music, and learning
Rise of capitalism* (bankers)
Medici family
Crusaders* and merchants returned from East with classical texts and ideas
Traded silk, wool, and ancient texts from classical Greek and Roman era

Feudal System
- political, military and social system based on the holding of lands in exchange for work
- disappointed by someone or something previously respected or admired
- the activity of buying and selling
- a city with its surrounding territory forms as an independent state
- a person who campaigns for political, social, or religious change change; a campaigner
- country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than state
Humanism video
Cornell notes/ Note-taking strategy that is organized
an outlook that placed more emphasis on the individual and reason rather than spiritual or divine matters
Renaissance cultural movement that turned away from the medieval way of life and revived interest in ancient Greek and Roman thinking
Study of human nature, potential and achievements
Influenced artists/ architects to carry on classical traditions
Suggest a person can enjoy life without offending God
Study of classical education
(history, literature, arts, philosophy)
- not subject or bound by religious rule
Using Science and the humanities to explain phenomena, not religion
Allowed people during the Renaissance to experience other world views
Free thinking alternative
Humanism Warm-Up
What is a definition of humanism?

What are two components of humanism?

Give an example.
Da Vinci: The Ultimate Renaissance Man
Skilled in many subjects
Dissected human body
Made sketches for helicopters, water systems, and war weapons
Last Supper, Mona Lisa
Educated people expected to create art
Master of every study
Charming, witty, well-educated in classics (literature, global studies, art)
Dance, Play, Write Poetry, Skilled Rider, Wrestler, Swordsman, Mathematics
Women expected to inspire art, not create it.
Create Your Own Renaissance Man/ Woman
Create your own Renaissance Person on your own sheet of paper.
At least two paragraphs must include:
Person's name
Their hobbies
Subjects they study
Show your person is educated, artistic, physical and social
Jack of All Trades Wrap Up
Think about this quote:
"Jack of all trades, Master of none."

What do you think it means?

Can you think of any people this could apply to?

How does this relate to the idea of the Renaissance man?
Madonna Enthroned Between Two Angels by Duccio di Buoninsegna
Mona Lisa by Leonardo Da Vinci
Middle Ages
Portrayed religious subjects
Flat, No shadows
No emotion or feeling
Painted saints and religious figures bigger
Halo around heads of angels and religious figures
Portrayed religious subjects
Used perspective and depth to show dimensions on flat surface
Emphasis on individual (Important figures in society)
More realistic, distinctive about individual
Create a chart:
Leonardo Da Vinci
Mona Lisa, Last Supper
Used perspective
Sfumato- smoke
Chiaroscuro- soft, life-like quality
Raphael (1483-1520)
Best known for his painting of Madonnas
Paintings in Rome
Fresco- painting over fresh/ wet plaster (the painting becomes part of the wall)
Michelangelo (1475-1564)
Skilled Sculpter
Used fresco
Used tempera- pigment mixed with egg to produce durable paint
William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
Great writer influenced by the spread of The Renaissance
Considered to be the first modern poet
Weaved together plots of ancient tragedies with the histories of Medieval England
Showed his plays in theaters so common people could enjoy
Othello, Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet
"To be or not to be..."
Impact on Renaissance/ Modern World
Embodied focus of the individual and Renaissance ways of thinking
Influenced English Renaissance
Well-rounded education (classic literature)
Writing skills have not been rivaled since his death
Character, plot, language and genre
Inspired Charles Dickens
Invented words we use today in English language
Shakespeare Words
Write your own story using at least 7 words that Shakespeare invented.
Humanism Connection
Created new words we use today
Inspired many great writers to pursue their passions and interest
Incorporated Humanism in his plays
Characters wth high level of self knowledge and self expression
Growth of City-States
Let's start off with the feudal system...
Church had just as much power as the monarch/ king
Italian states became masters of banking, producing wool, etc
Medici family in Florence
High rank banking and merchant family
Largest and most respected banking family in Italy
Dictatorship over Florence
Each city-state specialized in a trade
Small independent states
City States:

Fueled trade from Eastern countries
Genoa-Ivory and Gold
Milan-metal goods and armor
Venice- ships that controlled trade of silk, spices and perfume
Encouraged art and learning
Rich families paid for statues, paintings, & beautiful buildings
Italy in mountains
Black Death
Spread through trade from Eastern countries on fleas on rats
Killed 1/3 of the country's population
Many treatments to avoid Black Death
People kept catching the disease
People sought other explanations for disease besides prayer, self-harm, and blaming others
Each city left to handle the devastation on its own
Design a City-State of Your Own
Must include:
Name of city-state
A motto
An emblem or symbol
A Ruler or rulers
Draw and name the currency of your city-state
3 Laws specific to your city-state
A good/service you specialize in
Trade & Commerce of the Renaissance
Despite plague and wars, medieval trade and manufacturing still flourished
Crusades brought European merchants into contact with Asians and Africans (Marketed in luxury goods)
As trade expanded East, towns became even more important
Shipping and Banking
Medici family
Currency: Florin
Exchanged coins from one region for the currency of another
Counter or table where merchants/ money changers set up shop
Wars helped transform banking
Renaissance connection
Hierarchy of new middle class showed a change in European society
Trade and bustling new towns allowed opportunity for a new place in society
These changes reflected a new belief in worth of the individual
- New age showed an individual's freedom over the class/role they were born into
Trade Activity/Game
Each group is a country. (You can name it.)
Each group will be assigned a good that they specialize in
Assign a
to your good (Price) $0-$10
First Round
: Trade your items with other groups by telling them why they should have your good and vice versa
Decide whether to trade or not
Class will come together and mark how much money the good they have is worth compared to their original card (Profit)
Second Round
: Repeat once more
Class discussion
Humanism in the Renaissance
What is humanism?
Humankind and culture thrived
Importance attached to the individual
Turned away from Middle Age way of thinking
Revived interest in classical thought
More worldly
Separation of government institutions from religion ones
People can achieve great things
No divine right

Way of life following the religious mindset vs a worldly mindset
Then And Now...
Heliocentric- New age scientific proven theory that the Sun is in the center of our solar system
Discovery of other galaxies
Geocentric- Ancient thought that the Earth was the center of the universe
evolutionary new thought that relied on reason of the individual and scientific theories
Printing Press
Johannes Gutenburg
Accelerated the spread of texts and ideas
Helped Renaissance writers gain fame
Machiavelli (1469-1527)
Witnessed fall of Medici family
Accused of conspiracy but denied involvement
Wrote The Prince after prison
Lasting impact on politics in modern era
Possibly influenced Founding Fathers
Stalin, Tupac
The Prince
Guidelines for how an individual(s) should run a country
Certain social benefits culd be achieved through moral corruption
The ends justify the means
Do what is best for the country, not what's best for your morals
One individual's careful observation and thinking
Seperated government from religion (secularism)
End was to benefit humanity
Different outlook on politics and world
"Better to Be Feared than to Be Loved"
I think it means that in order to rule well, you have to instill fear to keep people from taking advantage of you and your power.
I do not agree.
People will do almost anything out of fear, but what they will do for love is limitless.
The Protestant Reformation (1500-1600)
Define skepticism. If you don't know, write what you think it means.

What is an event or ideas that you are skeptical about?

- To change/ to bring back to the original form
- A pardon releasing a sinner of their sins/ Buy way into Heaven
- A member or follower of a church
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
German monk
Took a stand against Johann Teztel, who raised money to build St. Peter's cathedral by selling indulgences
God's Judgement Can't Be Bought/ Faith in God
95 Theses (Corrupt Priests)
Printing Press
He was excommunicated by the pope
Labeled a
- a believer of a practice contrary to status quo
Protestantism spread
Lutheran, Calvinism, Anglicanism
Timeline Events

Black Death
Beginning of Renaissance
Printing Press
Columbus "discovers" Americas
Michelangelo paints Sistine Chapel
Machiavelli writes 'The Prince'
Martin Luther
'95 Theses'
Martin Luther excommunicated
Peace of Ausberg
Catholic Reformation
Counter Reformation (1545-1648)
Catholic Revival
Response to Protestant Reformation
Council of Trent- to reform priests/ practices and claim lost Protestant souls
30 Years War
Failed to convert Protestants but succeeded in influencing religion in the New World and Jesuits
Peace of Ausberg
Church Councils and the Church
Bible ONLY in Latin
"Original sin" removed at baptism
Must earn salvation by keeping church teachings, rituals, practices, and doing good works
Bible as the FINAL authority
Bible in the language of the people
"Original Sin" is removed by faith/ belief in Christ
Salvation is a gift from God that can only be granted through forgiveness
Branches of Christianity Origami
Humanist values led people to challenge the church
That all people should have the opportunity to learn, not just the few elite that can use it to restrict authority
People allowed to practice their own form of Christianity
Bible translations
John Calvin (1509-1564)
Aggressive Defendant of Protestantism
Geneva split from Pope
Ideal Protestant Power
Pre-destination/ God as final authority
Influenced Presbyterian, Puritan, protestant-led government
Political Effects of Reformation
Individuals/ monarchs gained power
Development of nation-states
Laid groundwork for Enlightenment
Led some to reject all religions and others to call for overthrow of existing governments
Religious/ Social Effects
New denominations
Catholic Church more unified
More emphasis on Education in promoting beliefs (New schools & universities

The Age of Exploration (Early 15th century/1400s)
Marco Polo 1200s
Increase in demand for foreign spices from Asia
Silk Road Closed due to various wars
Alternative routes
Prince Henry and School for navigation
Christopher Columbus 1492
Magellan 1519-1522
Why was thinking about the individual and their world in the universe an important aspect of the Renaissance?

Old World meets New World
Map of the World
World Maps
Full transcript