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Roaring 20's & The Dirty 30's
Transcript of Roaring 20's & The Dirty 30's
and the bottom picture is Dr.Banting with his
assistant Charles Best and one of the dogs they
used for testing insulin. Information and picture source: www.nobelprice.org. The Second World War officially began on September 1, 1939, when Germany invaded of Poland. Both Britain and France declared war on the Nazi Third Reich on 3 September 1939. The Parliament of Canada declared war on Germany Seven days later, on 10 September 1939. It was Canada's first independent declaration of war, it would be the start of their participation in the largest combined national effort in Canadian history. When the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation announced that Canada had declared war they had only 16 modern light tanks, 4 anti aircraft guns and two anti-tank guns. No one thought there would be another war so funds were not put in to the army. Canada's military was small with 5,000 soldiers but they were very well trained. The militia had 50,000 very poorly equipped members as well but they reportedly were very enthusiastic, this would make up for their lack of equipment and experience. Canada's small force would grow into a highly qualified combat force with five divisions. " Within a month of recruiting the Canadian Army had risen to a strength of 70,000 men"*. By the end of the war, over 1 million citizens would be in military uniform. Canada possessed the fourth-largest air force and third-largest naval surface fleet in the world. The Royal Canadian Navy, and the Royal Canadian Air Force were considered to be the supporting roles and the land combat force would be the nations main effort. The First Division of the Canadian army first landed in England in December of 1939 under command of Maj. Gen. A.G.L McNaughton. Canadian propaganda posters, flyers and missives were common place to entice aid for the military. On October 18th, 1929, a landmark decision changed the face of Canadian politics. Emily Murphy ("born in Cookstown, Ontario"*1), Henrietta Muir Edwards, Nellie McClung , Louise McKinney and Irene Parlby joined together as the Famous Five to fight for women's rights. The Famous Five questioned the government if women were also considered persons as stated in section 24 of the British North America Act of 1867. The government said NO on April 24 1928. The five ladies brought a lawsuit to the Supreme Court and the rule against women that said they weren't persons. "The Persons' Case is one of the major achievements by Canadians for Canadians."*2. These 5 women succeeded in having all women defined as "persons" under Section 24 of the British North America Act. Because of this women for the first time became eligible to have a seat in the Senate and helped guarantee that women are represented in all levels of Canadian politics. This victory showed women they could do or be anything they wanted to and to "dream big" and to realize their potential. My pictures show Canadian propaganda and the memorial of the famous five outside on Parliament Hill, Ottawa. The march to Ottawa was a difficult journey where thousands of unemployed men protested the poor conditions in federal relief camps that were scattered in remote areas across Western Canada. The men lived and worked in camps that was unbearable and decided to walkout on strike in April 1935. The strikers felt the Tory government of R.B. Bennett had decided "They were to be hidden away to become forgotten men, the forgotten generation"*1. After two months of unsuccessful struggles and protests for union wages the strikers decided to take their complaints to Ottawa. The men left Vancouver on July 3 in railway cars. In Regina the government forbade the railway to transport the Men any further and on July 1st the men were meeting in Regina's Market square to discuss strategies when "A shrill whistle blasted out a signal, The backs of vans were opened and out poured the Mounties"*2. The RCMP violently stopped the strike, many strikers were sent to jail and one police man died. That day became known as the Regina Riot. The trek was over, the men returned to their camps with no where else to go but what the men we going through captured Canadians hearts and minds. "Bennett, however did not escape the fallout. In the federal , the prime minister promised radical reforms, including health and unemployment insurance as well as a minimum wage. But it was too late. In October, 1935, William Lyon Mackenzie King soundly defeated Bennett"*3. Image Source Google images. www.google.ca League of Nations was created Jan. 10 1920, its headquarters was in Geneva, Switzerland. "It was founded on the principals of collective security and preservation of peace through arbitration of international disputes"* Canadian PM Robert Borden persuaded Britain to let Canada have its own seat which was important in moving toward Canada becoming an independent nation. The league failed and could not prevent another world war and the league was dissolved on April 20 1946 transferring its assets to the United Nations. The above picture shows a history of the League of Nations. *League of Nations article accessed April 27 2013, www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles In 1920 the banishment of alcohol, the selling and drinking of intoxicating beverages which is called Prohibition, is widespread across Canada. The rules are different between each province, but most bars are closed and the sale of alcohol in public establishments is illegal with some private exceptions. Aboriginal or Native Canadian wines are also exempt. "Alcohol can still be sold through the government for industrial, scientific, mechanical, artistic and medical uses. Distillers can sell their products outside their own province with proper documentation."* By 1924 almost all the provinces decided it was easier to control liquor and collect taxes than trying to ban it altogether. These pictures show 2 very opposite opinions on consumption of beer and liquors. Image source: google images Research sources:
* ww.cbc.ca/news/background/prohibition Mackenzie King was Prime Minister of Canada for the Liberal party off and on for a total of 22 years and is is the longest serving Prime Minister in Canadian history. Mackenzie King's first term was from December 29, 1921, to June 28, 1926, the second from September 25, 1926, to August 7, 1930, and the third from October 23, 1935, to November 15, 1948. "Some key accomplishments of his terms include the creation of old age pensions in 1926, unemployment insurance in 1940, family allowances in 1944, and his leadership of Canada through World War II from 1939 to 1945."* In 1930 he appointed the first women to senate, a huge step forward for women in all walks of life. Born in Kitchener, Ontario, on December 17, 1874 William Lyon Mackenzie King died in Kingsmere, Quebec, on July 22, 1950. Even today Mackenzie King is remembered and honored by having his image on a fifty dollar Canadian Bill. * Information source: http://canadaonline.about.com/cs/primeminister/p/pmking.htm Image source: www.googleimages.ca The radio station CFCA which was owned by the Toronto Star news paper did the first radio broadcast of an ice hockey game On February 8, 1923. "The station also carried the first NHL radio broadcast on February 14, 1923".* Broadcast from the radio station CJCG in Winnipeg, Manitoba was the first full hockey game over the radio. On March 14, 1923 on CKCK in Regina, Saskatchewan was the first broadcast in full of a professional game, it was a Western Canada Hockey League not NHL. In 1931 on the CNR Radio network Saturday NHL broadcasts began. Families gathered to listen to sports
on the radio as shown in my picture. Ever since Foster Hewitt's start to his radio broadcast "Hello, Canada!" Hockey Night In Canada has been a national institution. The first Broadcast of Canadian content that was widely listened to was His first Hockey Night in Canada on Mar 22, 1923. A packed hockey arena was still first choice but radio advertising opened up an whole new world to those who couldnt be at the games. * http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ice_hockey_broadcasting accessed April 26 2013 * http://www.cbc.ca/sports/hockey/hnic/histrad.html Images: www.google.ca/googleimages *2 http://people.ucalgary.ca/~gpopconf/person.html Image sources: www.google.ca *1 http://www.swc-cfc.gc.ca/dates/gg/case-affaire-eng.html After WWI The twenties were a time of prosperity for most Canadian's, happy carefree days were here and the people enjoyed these good times believing that they would not end.
Jazz was introduced and with it brought night clubs and dance studios that popped up all across the country.The Charleston introduced in 1923 became the dance of the decade. It is now known as the dance of the "Jazz Age."Automobiles were replacing horse draw carriages and mass production of the Car was started by Henry Ford in the early 1900's. Fashion changed ! Shorter hair styles, more make-up and different styles of colorful Low wasted dresses with fullness at the bottom allowed women to move more freely and dance. It was acceptable to smoke and drink in public and women now had greater participation in the workforce, were allowed to vote and sit in the senate! The Roaring Twenties redefined womanhood. Talking movies arrived in Canada in 1927 and theaters were being built and people flocked to them. Going out on the town was the thing to do in the 20's.
Many changes and new inventions were happening such as, electric stoves, washing machines, vacuum cleaners and toasters. Mahjong and crossword puzzles became a favorite past time fad and many
people enjoyed the stock market and lived like the "good ole days" would last forever! There was so much going on only a collage of pictures might show how busy the 20's were. http://www.canadahistory.com/sections/eras/roaring%2020s/Roaring%2020s.html In the 1920's business started to grow, jobs were available again and people thought the profitable days would never end so they spent frivolously. A lot of people invested in businesses that were too big to be owned by one person and who sold their stocks to finance those businesses. If a lot of people wanted to buy a specific stock the price was high and the price was low if there were not many buyers. Stock prices went up and down between 1925-1926, but was followed by a strong upward trend in 1927 which encouraged many more people to invest. By 1929 the market had reached its peak. On Thursday October 24 1929 stock market prices dropped drastically and large numbers of people began selling their stocks. Several Wall Street bankers pulled together to use their finances, they bought stocks to try to calm the public which it did....temporarily. On Black Tuesday October 29, 1929, about 16 million shares were traded, and the Dow lost an additional 30 points. Because of the amount of stocks sold there was a massive drop in the prices. The market h lost over $30 billion in the space of two days, $14 billion of it on October 29 alone. The crash signaled the beginning of the 10-year Great Depression that affected all of the Western industrialized countries. Below is a graph of the stock market before and after the crash which made headlines all over and affected the whole world. Information sources:
http://history1900s.about.com/od/1920s/a/stockcrash1929_2.htm and http://www.canadahistory.com/sections/eras/crash%20depression/Crash.html Picture sources: www.google.ca/googleimages Information sources: http://www.cbc.ca/history/EPISCONTENTSE1EP13CH3PA4LE.html
http://www.ontoottawa.ca/trek/trek.html http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/macleans/on-to-ottawa-trekregina-riot Workers on their way to Ottawa.
www.google.ca/googleimages Severe drought hits the mid-western and southern plains
in 1931 and lasts a decade or more in some areas. The lands
have been over-plowed by farmers and over-grazed by animals
and as the crops die the "black blizzards begin. This all started
at about the same time the Great Depression began and it
continued late into the 1930s. With no native prairie grasses
or crops to hold the earth it would rise into the air with the
winds and blow away in minutes. In May 1934 a really severe
dust storm was said to have deposited 12 million tons of dust
in the city of Chicago. On April 14, 1935—Black Sunday was the worse dust storm ever. "The storm carried twice as much dirt as was dug out of the earth to create the Panama Canal. The canal took seven years to dig; the storm lasted a single afternoon. More than 300,000 tons of Great Plains topsoil was airborne that day." *1 One third of the farmers fled the Dust Bowl during the 1930s but those that stayed saw the first bit of hope in 1936 in the form of Hugh Bennett, an agricultural expert. Bennett convinced Congress to finance a federal program that would paid farmers to use new techniques. These farming techniques would conserve the topsoil and would apparently over time help to restore the land. In the following year 1937, the soil loss was down 65 percent and the conservation of the soil seemed to be working. The drought continued and caused issues until the fall of 1937 when the rains started to come back. * information sources: http://environment.about.com/od/environmentalevents/f/dustbowl.htm http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/depression/dustbowl.htm image sources: www.google.ca/googleimages Information sources: http://www.yesnet.yk.ca/schools/projects/canadianhistory/canadaatwar/war.html
Photo sources: www.google.ca/googleimages Picture source: www.google.ca The Jitterbug was the dance of the 30's but with money being so short women had to resort to sewing their families clothing. Dresses became longer and so did the hair but the curls remained fashionable. Movies continued to grow in popularity with classics such as Gone with the Wind and The Wizard of OZ and Winnie the Pooh was also introduced. The board game Monopoly and scrabble were both invented in the 30's. Video cameras, the lie detector machine and traffic lights are also some of the inventions from the 1930's. The Dionne Quintuplets were born in 1934 near Callandar, Ontario caused a media sensation. There were dolls of each girl and even tours of their home and all aspects of their lives were followed in the media as they grew up. Maple Leaf Garden opened up November 12, 1931 and Hockey Night in Canada was being broadcast on the Radio. The depression had many living in relief camps and many people would not recover what they had lost in the stock market crash. The dirty 30's was a time of strife and struggles it was a decade of trials starting with a market crash, dust bowl damage to the prairies, lack of jobs and money were common and the decade ended with WWII. People really relied on entertainment to forget the troubles their lives in the dirty 30's. Image source: www.google.ca
Information sources: http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/inde x.cfm?PgNm=TCETimelineBrowse&Params=A3PER2