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The Era of Global Interaction and change

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Sooji Seo

on 30 November 2012

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Transcript of The Era of Global Interaction and change

The Era of Global Interaction 1450-1750
[Changes in Trade, Technology and Global Interaction] Narrative





Spain
-Conquistadors (Cortez)
-Interaction with China for Cotton, porcelain and silk
-Effect of silver in the world economy and interaction

France/Italy/Dutch/England/Portugal
-Trading company (empire/protecting trade route)
-Empire and trading post





Conclusion: -Main focus “Columbian exchange and its impact on Global Interaction”
-Cause and reason
-Effect of Columbian exchange
[When, Where, What, How] Table of Contents
-European Colonization (Mexico, Peru)
-Biological Effect (disease, population, new species, slave)
-Disease and More...-Taino (ative Americans)
-Slave trade
-Pattern of contact and interaction
-Asante and Dahomey

China/India
-Population &world economy(-Silver, Cotton, Gold)
-Food from America
Japan
-Interaction with Europeans
-Self-imposed isolation -Gunpowder Empires and control of environment-Food from America Asia Big Concept of 1450-1750 This period of world history contains several global themes.
Main concepts include global empires, global trade and global interactions.
Global forces relating to global trade can associate with recent global tension & conflicts
New global institutions emerging in this time frame involved businesses, politics, finance and cultural interaction Such changes were due to technological development
It allowed mariners and merchants to travel efficiently in longer distances and in accurate locations.
Traveling became more advanced, allowing navigators to explore different places through different routes. The Major Causes of The Globalization and Changes Developed Navigational Systems:

European mariners began to use a compass (First invented in China)

Better maps and use of astronomy allowed people to locate places accurately. Technological Development Better Designs for Sailing Ships:

"Active technological innovations in Europe"

Ship building technologies became better during this time.

New and improved styles of ship building such as fully rigged ship, more economic and streamlined "caravel" ship, stenpost rudder and lateen sails. Use of New Military Technology
[European based]

Europeans adopted Guns and Gunpowder, first introduced by Chinese.

New guns played a vital role for creating new empires on both land and overseas. [Technology in map, ships and navigation] [caravel
15th century] ***"The Columbian Exchange and Its Impact to Global Interaction" was a major cause and the "Focus" of this timeline*** So what is the Columbian Exchange? Initially, it started in 1492 after Christopher Columbus’s discovery of Hispaniola (Caribbean Island)
It is also known as the Grand Exchange because new animals, plants, and slaves were wide spread among America, Europe and Africa
New foods were traded and contagious diseases spread as the new interaction began. During 15th century, Muslims occupied Spain. Two different cultures (Christianity and Islam) existed and a number of Christian kingdoms emerged such as Portugal on the Atlantic coast and Argon in the Eastern Spain.

Castile was the largest center of all and the Spanish wanted to unite their religion and conquer their land under Christian ruler.

As a result, by the mid 15th century, Ferdinand of Argon and Isabella of Castile combined their political power through a marriage.

They eliminated and converted non-Christian people and were eager to expand their territories and make them Christians. -The start of the Columbian Exchange was due to Columbus’s discovery of Hispaniola (Caribbean island)

-The deeper cause is due to Spain’s “Reconquista” [Route for Columbus' Voyages]
1492-1498 ***It was also by 1492 that the Granada War ended, establishing the unification, and for the further expansion of their territories, Ferdinand and Isabella supported Columbus as the first navigator, hoping to reach East Indies. Interaction part of SPICE will contain the global interaction caused by the Columbian Exchange and the changes led: However, Columbus failed to reach India but instead, he discovered a Caribbean Island and colonized in different lands with his crew members.
It is significant not only that he discovered America, but letting Europe now about the existence of the land. Musket : Used weapon for Gunpowder Empire. Ferdinand and Isabella 15th century
The Surrender of Granada by Francisco Pradilla Ortiz America
Mid 15th~18th century The silver mining was a significant change and it led European colonies in America wealthy and become part of world economy. In America, there were new types of animal species such as horses, cows, goats, and pigs introduced

Although it can be positive aspect of change, it also brought DISEASE.
Disease such as measles, influenza, smallpox, whooping cough and diphtheria.
Population decreased in America and many native or Indians died due to new disease that they weren’t immune. •Discovery of America decreased indigenous American population by approximately 90%

•Population was replaced by two waves of migration of
African slave trade & European colonization Disease and more… Old world diseases were Smallpox, Measles, Malaria, Yellow Fever, Influenza, and Chickenpox.

New world diseases were Syphilis, Polio, Hepatitis and Encephalitis. Smallpox was one of the deadliest diseases to Americans.
Symptoms of the disease included vomiting and fever.
A few days later, ab eruption forms on the skin.

For instance in Iceland, small pox first appeared in 1700s and in about couple years, population dropped from 18,000 to 50,000.

Because the Indians were isolated before the European’s arrival, they weren’t immune to such disease. Although Viking people reached America and colonized, huge spread of disease didn’t occur because there wasn’t enough contact between Indians and no high density of population that would have largely caused the spread of disease.

In addition, the Columbian Exchange brought a lot of factors that could cause diseases. Some of the causes are African slaves, exotic animals and new plants; Whereas Vikings and other nomadic groups were in small groups and smaller scale than the Columbian Exchange. Disease also led native people to migrate in different parts of America Tainos [1492]

Tainos were indigenous people or pre-Columbian inhabitants in the Caribbeans.

They were severely affected due to both disease and European colonization.

Europeans had better weapons and Tainos were killedm refusing to work for the Europeans. Many of them refused to do agricultural work and mine silvers for Europeans and because of this African slaves were introduced as one reason.

Early population estimate of Hispaniola was from range of 100,000 ~1,000,000 people.

However, due to diseases and the European’s forceful conquer led to severe decrease in the population

By 1507, the population decreased to 60,000 people Europe
1492-1750 Conquers and colonizations were big parts of the interaction in this era, influenced by the Columbian Exchange. [Spain]
Colonization
Date: 1492

Before the Columbian Exchange, there were no enormous colonies that the Europeans owned.
They only had the small colonies to fight with so there were no major changes.

However, after one Spanish traveler, Christopher Columbus took a voyage and had a wrong stop at a Caribbean Island in Hispaniola, the Spaniards colonized the Aztec Empires in Mexico and Inca Empires in Peru, the big colony was formed, as well as the discovery of Latin America.

Also, because of the wealth that was brought by these colonized empires, Spain brought up the new world order and became one of the strongest countries in the world, forming the Imperialism that lasted for four centuries.

Later, Spain lost its power by Britain after the defeat of Spanish Armada in 1588, and Britain continued to expand the colonization in North America, Caribbean Island and Africa.

Hernan Cortés[1485-1547]

In 1519, Hernan Cortes, led an expedition of 600 men to the coast of Mexico.

Battles were fought with towns subject to the Aztec Empire. As a result, Cortes was able to enlist the defeated peoples’ support against their overlords.

By deception, boldness, ruthlessness and luck, he captured Aztec emperor and killed him. Later the Tenochtitlan was replaced by Mexico City. Conquistador The conquistadors are conquerors especially Spanish conquerors of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century.
They were like soldiers and explorers who served Spanish and Portuguese Empire. They sailed beyond Europe and conquered territories and trade routes. Silver and EU and World Economy
Due to new interactions with America, Europe was able to benefit in many ways and they developed mercantilism.

Silver, for instance played grate role in World Economy
Spain was able to trade silvers with Asian goods such as cotton, silk and porcelain
Spain was also able to make processed goods and make profit by selling them, which is made from cheap raw material.
• Surplus agriculture was possible due to cheap labors and raw materials from America
• As a result, population in Europe increased [Portugal, England, France, Italy, Netherlands] America Europe Big concept/Key Narrative Concept Africa Middle East and South Asia -Changes and continuity chart Africa
[1450-1750] Conquer and colonization was a big part of the interaction in this era influenced by Colmbian Exchange. • Slavery was one big part of interaction in this time frame
• African slavery was also influenced by the Columbian Exchange • African slaves were needed in America for mining and agriculture
• They were more immune than the American aboriginal people. Pattern of Contact was Formed

• Europe and Africa traded slaves and processed goods fulfilling both of their needs.

• The interaction between them improved their economy and allowed them to become richer. Asante and Dahomey

(From 1650s and lasted longer than the time frame.) [Context as whole: Triangular trade]
Africa (slaves)→ --> America (slaves do labor and produce raw material)→--> Europe gained cheap material and made processed goods Asia
[1450-1750] Japan

During this time period, it wasn’t only the America, Africa and Middle East that Europeans traded and interacted but also with Japan. Although there wasn't much of interaction that are directly related to the Columbian Exchange, the relationship between Europeans and Japanese was one interaction of this time frame.
Especially for firearms they managed to manufacture for themselves and their technological innovation contributed to the victories of warfare. India/China • It is significant to note that due to the Columbian exchange, bringing many crops from America, the Chinese population, remarkably increased.

• Especially crops like corns and potatoes were nutritious with high calories that served well for people’s health

• Same influence goes for India as well World Economy

While various trades and interactions were happening in the triangular trade, China and India was big part of the world economy as well as trading their good with Europeans. Middle East
[1500-1750]
Ottoman Empire existed before this time period and lasted longer. At the same time of the triangular trade of Atlantic world, the Columbian Exchange affected Islamic world as well, starting from mid-15th century

Although effect of Columbian exchange didn’t had the same influence as it did on Europe and America, it game some impact to Islamic gunpowder empires like Savafid, Ottoman and Mughal. The Columbian Exchange allowed a variety of crops to be introduced to Islamic Empires.

It brought potato, maize, and tomatoes from America.
Tobacco and coffee were especially the major products that Ottoman and Safavid traded.

One reason for such popularity over Tobacco and coffee is due to their addictive chemicals such as nicotine and caffeine. Technology and Gunpowder Empires ** One significant point about Islamic Empire’s technological innovation is that they didn’t further elaborate to develop technology. Although they used muskets and cannons, compared to Europeans, their theology falls behind other nations. Thus they were the middlers of trade routs between Europe and Asia but why not improve their technology?

For example, janissaries didn’t want and allow others to innovate technology because they didn’t want their status to drop. In other words, they banned such opportunities of technological innovation so that others won’t have better weapons and take them down from the position. Muskets • The simple design of musket allowed people to use variety of ammunition.
• People often used round balls as bullets. Japan
1450-1750 They limited and controlled the trades with foreign traders by making Nagasaki as the only port for international trade. Japanese people weren’t so interested in trades... One reason for such limitation was the European’s challenge

Portuguese, as they traded with Japan, spread Christianity and as a result, Japan didn’t want other religions to spread, and ordered Christian missionaries to leave their country.

This order was strictly forced and as for the international trade, Japan wanted to adopt their own technology instead of acquiring from other nations. (Self-imposed Isolation) By Sooji & John 15th~18th century [European Travelers and and an old world map] ** “Arabian math and science combined with Spanish and Portuguese sailing experience to make better navigation than ever before.”

“Maps and charts became more accurate, and navigational instruments became easier to use. "

"The ease of navigation made people more prone to exploring.” Structure and blueprint **Many civilization made ships sturdier, faster and cheaper to build and more maneuverable. **It was important to protect trade routes as well as to conquer other lands. The empire’s role took great charge of this matter “His discovery allowed to interact with every known places that existed.” As a result of his discovery of America, trades involved the Americas forming the Triangular Trade with Europe and Africa. Also, the Columbian Exchange allowed people to trade new species of animals, plants and slaves and introduce different races to new lands. -New biological exchanges that effected population, introducing species, economy and slavery -New importance of large political forces and the military interactions involving trades. -Forging of new global economy with global interaction America had new species of plants such as tomato, maize, potato, vanilla, corn, pará rubber tree, cacao and tobacco. These goods from America was introduced to Europe and Europeans were less starving due to their benefit of cheap raw materials and cash crops. From Crash course (citation at the end of ppt.) One major product was silver. Europeans found a lot of silvers in America and silver was one major trading product that they had. Diseases More details about technology of Gunpowder Empires will be covered later! Malaria Armada Ships • Population in every area of Europe increased by 50-100% in the 18th century • Agricultural Revolution
o American crops (corns and potatoes) • Urbanization
o Netherlands became 1st country with 50% urban population
o London: 200,000 in 1600; 350,000 by 1650
o Paris: 200,000 in 1350; 500,000 by 1700 Population Mid 17th century.
Due to the Columbian Exchange and global trade, many companies for trade emerged. Dutch East Indian Company/English East Indian Company.

• Interactions between different regions such as Netherlands,
Britain and France all chartered great trading companies
• These companies were independent from government
• They had their separate armies to protect their trade routs
• They monopolized the trades
• Also made their own coins and actively interacted with Asian merchants. • Asante rose to power in the period of slave trade. It helped their economy trading with Europeans Also from the salve trade, they were able to be part of the world economy .

• They also controlled gold, producing zones, making gold the main export. Further to the East, there was kingdom of Benin and it was at the height of its power when the Europeans arrived.

• Eventually European pressured and the goals of the Benin nobility combined to generate a significant slave trade in the 18th century, but Benin never made the slave trade its primary source of revenue or sate policy.

• Contact between Europe and Africa expended. But only limited contact with Europe -By trading slaves, they earned firearms allowing Dahomey Empire to gain more strength by dominating over other African kingdoms.

-Other then the slave trades, they also traded ivory, gold and other products with Europe. (This is for general in trading for Africa) Asante Dahomey Triangular Trade!
staring from late 15th century One of the major reasons why the African slaves were brought to America was because the Indian population decreased and they refused to work for Europeans.

Also, African slaves were more immune to diseases like malaria. It was profitable for Europeans that and were able to make continuous relationship with African merchants. SPICE Connection: Interaction and Economy
Silver was one of the major products from the America.

Spanish traded silvers with Chinese silks and porcelain as well as Indian cottons.
Silver became the new currency of the world economy and became valuable especially for India and China

Mercantilism was one way the European economy ran. They made profits from buying cheap raw materials and selling processed goods of silver products to other nations.

One downfall of obtaining many silver was the cause of inflation. As they had surplus of silver, and the value of silver dropped and the price of other products increased.

This also resulted as an incentive for lower and middle class for them to work harder to gain more profits as the value of their money was decreasing but the price of products was going up. • Mughal, Ottoman and Safavid were called Gunpowder Empires because they heavily relied on firearms such as muskets and cannons.

• Technology is one major part of environmental interaction as it is part of controlling the environment.

• Gunpowder weapons also influenced the navy and by using such technology, their lands and naval armies were influenced both socially and politically.

• For example, battle of Chaldiran (Ottoman vs. Safavid in 1514) showed the importance of firearms in warfare and using such technology reorganized the status of army and allow groups like Janissaries to gain more political power and status.

• Janissaries of Ottoman Empire are one example of group who used firearms such as muskets. Portuguese ship in Nagasaki port
panoramic Japanese silkscreen painting from the early 1600s. “The Columbian Exchange was the greatest feature of this era that led to global interaction and changes; at the same time, gave negative effects that led the spread of disease and huge population decrease.” And for animal such as alpaca, American mink, guinea pig, llama, Muscovy duck and turkey. Conclusion Continuities and Changes Final Recap for Things You Should Take from This Timeine -The Columbian Exchanges had positive effect of introducing new food and goods to other regions through global interaction such as Triangular Trade Although not directly and significantly effected by the Columbian Exchange, importing new goods from America influenced civilizations such as Gunpowder Empires of Middle East and South West Asia and Japan. -New world economy was introduced by involving America.

-Especially the use of silver as the new global currency and emergence of independent trading companies were significant changes in this period. SPICE Connection [Economy and Interaction] -New political and social status was formed through conquering foreign lands and colonizing in those lands.

[Europeans at the top, native nobles in the middle and African slaves at the bottom in American colonies]

Also new social groups appeared such as Casta, which is the mixed race of Europeans and Americans.
Casta’ population increased a lot especially in Mexico and Peru.

-Many Europeans were able to have more opportunities for better political and social status by conquering America. SPICE Connection [Politics/ Social and Interaction] Castas
Finally
-Technological innovation was one big part of environmental interaction that allowed people to travel further with accuracy of locations.

-Not only navigational technology but use of firearms such as muskets and cannon by Gunpowder Empire was one significant part of this time period. -The Columbian Exchanges didn’t always had positive effect but also negative effects such as bringing new disease to America causing large Indian population to decrease and increase in using coerced labors. Adas, Michael, Stuart B. Schwartz, and Marc Jason Gilbert. "Chapter 21-27." World Civilization. By Peter N. Stearns. Vol. 6th Edition. N.p.: Pearson, 2011. N. pag. Print.
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Cronon, William. Changes in the Land. 1st ed. New York : Hill and Wang, 1983.

Crosby, Alfred W. Germs, Seeds, and Animals: Studies in Ecological History. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe Inc., 1994. Citations Made by Sooji and John [castas]
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