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Transcript of The Counter-Reformation
Reformation Chelsey Moss and
Lisa Pederson Music of
Orlando di Lasso El Greco El Greco (1541-1614) Christ Cleansing
the Temple The Disrobing of Christ More Music Lasso's Musical Style Penitential Psalms Orlando di Lasso
(a.k.a. Orlande de Lassus) Why it matters in music Topics Discussed Council of Trent What books included in the Bible?
Saints, relics, and images
Catechism Council considered banning all polyphony Main composer for the Munich court chapel
More than 2000 works: Masses, motets, Italian madrigals, French chansons, German Lieder
Motet was his preferred form. He wrote over 1000!
A great singer. It is rumored that he was kidnapped three times as a choirboy because of his beautiful voice. Rich harmonies
Variation in the number of voices throughout one piece
Text painting Seven Psalms: Psalms 6, 32, 38, 51, 102, 130, 143
Texts focus on sin and penitence, asking God for mercy in an emotional way.
First composer to set the seven psalms to polyphony.
Musica reservata - "text-sensitive music reserved for a small circle of connoisseurs" (not open to the public) Domenikos Theotokopoulos
Born in Candia, capital of Crete, an island of Greece
Studied in Venice and Rome, Italy from around 1568-1576
Commissioned to paint altarpieces by the church of Santa Domingo el Antiguo in Toledo, Spain. He made nine pieces for the church.
He remained in Toledo for the rest of his life, painting mainly for the Church.
It was in Spain that he received his title "El Greco," which means "the Greek" in Spanish. "A symbol of the Catholic church's attempt to purify
itself after the Protestant Reformation." One of the pieces El Greco painted for the church of Santo Domingo el Antiguo, which became one of his most famous paintings. Music of Victoria (1532-1594) Matona, Mia Cara (Madrigal) Music of Palestrina Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548-1611) Self-Portrait 1604 An Overview of the
Counter-Reformation The Roman Catholic Church's response to the Reformation.
The Church recognized a need for reform.
Some of the areas reformed included:
Teaching the clergy the Bible
Preach the gospel, not church tradition
Bishops can only preside over one cathedral
Improvement of the moral character of clergymen
Emphasis on thrift and stewardship
Creation of list of approved and disapproved books What Was the Counter-Reformation? Main Events and People Council of Trent
Orlando di Lasso
Giovanni Pierluigi Da Palestrina
Tomás Luis de Victoria Psalm 130: De profundis clamavi Motet: Tristis est anima mea
(Sorrowful is my soul) Text from the gospels: Mark 14:34 and Matthew 26:38. Masses Approximately 60 Masses
Missa Susanna un jour
based on a poem by Guillaume Guéroult
story of Susanna in the book of Daniel in the Greek additions to the Old Testament
written for 5 voices
Lasso wrote a chanson on the poem as well. Born in Avila, Spain
Chorister at the cathedral from ages ten to eighteen
Late 1560s - 1586: Rome, Italy
1560s - may have been a student of Palestrina
1587: Returned to Spain
Chapel master, priest, choirmaster, and organist
The prominent Spanish composer of the Counter-Reformation "Musical equivalent to the paintings of El Greco." Victoria's Music Music: Dark, austere, mysterious
No secular music Motet: "O Magnum Mysterium" 1572
4 voices written for the Feast of the Circumcision Victoria's Masses Approximately 20 Masses Missa Officium Defunctorum (1605) Sanctus Summary - Post Quiz! Musical Overview Mass for Pope Marcellus - Kyrie Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina 1525-1594
Singer and composer at various churches
Dismissal from Sistine Chapel 1555
700+ sacred works (104 polyphonic masses) Clear understanding of text in sacred pieces
Simple harmony and counterpoint
No secular influence
No musical instruments Savior of Music Proved Masses written in polyphony, could be easy to listen to.
Mass for Pope Marcellus (1567)
"a cappella Sistina"
Point of imitation
Parody technique (emulation) 1545-1563
25 sessions, in 3 periods
Bishops and cardinals
Pope Paul III, Pope Julius III, Pope Pius IV
Trento, Italy and Bologna, Italy
Clarified doctrine of Catholic Church Fun Facts Papal Bull Jan. 26 1564
Ratified all decrees and definitions of Council of Trent "Benedictus Deus" "while one voice says 'Sanctus', another says 'Sabaoth', still another says 'Gloria tua', with howling, bellowing, and stammering, so that they more nearly resemble cats in January than flowers in May"
- Lewis Lockwood discussing polyphony 1562 Council decided:
Masses be tranquil and clear, with nothing profane (secular) only hymns and divine praises, in musical modes Missa Tu es Petrus - Kyrie Missa Aeterna Christi munera
Sanctus The Counter-Reformation was:
A. Spain's attempt to break free of the Catholic Church.
B. The Catholic Church's response to the Reformation.
C. A piece written by Palestrina.
D. The hipster's version of the Reformation. The Council of Trent was when:
A. King Trent held a Council of his knights.
B. Palestrina, Lasso, and Victoria convened and wrote a masterpiece.
C. The bishops and cardinals met to redefine the doctrine of the Catholic Church.
D. The bishops and cardinals met and had tea in the city of Trent. Palestrina was:
A. a great king in Africa.
B. a music publisher during the Renaissance.
C. a type of food the bishops ate at the Council of Trent.
D. the savior of church music. Lasso was known for:
A. his beautiful voice.
B. his motets.
C. his ranching skills.
D. both A and B. Victoria was from:
A. London, England
D. Avila, Spain