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Copy of Biology Chapter 17 Section 4 Patterns of Evolution
Transcript of Copy of Biology Chapter 17 Section 4 Patterns of Evolution
convergent evolution. Some evidence suggests that species do not change much over long periods of time and then undergo relatively short periods of rapid speciation. This kind of change is called
punctuated equilibrium. Darwin's species of finches were very similar but different in beak size and feeding habits. This is an example of
stabilizing selection. Darwin felt that biological change was slow and steady, an idea known as gradualism. Punctuated Equilibrium What effects have mass extinctions had on the history of life?
Mass extinctions have:
provided ecological opportunities for organisms that survived
resulted in bursts of evolution that produced many new species Extinction More than 99% of all species that have ever lived are now extinct. Extinction Fossil evidence shows that mass extinctions
ended the existence of many species in a short period of time.
occurred mainly when the dinosaurs disappeared.
require an asteroid strike to occur.
caused convergent evolution among animals. Master control genes are called
regulatory genes. Punctuated equilibrium is a pattern of evolution in which long stable periods are interrupted by brief periods of more rapid change. Punctuated Equilibrium The process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other over time is called coevolution. Coevolution Adaptive Radiation Adaptive radiation is the process by which a single species or a small group of species evolves into several different forms that live in different ways. Adaptive Radiation Six important topics in macroevolution are:
changes in developmental genes Macroevolution Macroevolution refers to large-scale evolutionary patterns and processes that occur over long periods of time. Patterns of Evolution The process by which unrelated organisms come to resemble one another is called convergent evolution.
Results in analogous structures. Convergent Evolution Hox Genes are the master control genes of body layout.
Developmental Genes and Body Plans Many micro changes
accumulate to become