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Arab-Israel Conflict IHC Project
Transcript of Arab-Israel Conflict IHC Project
Lee Xin De Causes Religion United Monarchy 1030 BC–930 BC Israel and Judah – 930-830s BC The Rise of Palestine Late 19th century-1917 The period of the Ottoman Empire rule in Palestine in which the Arabs in The Ottoman Palestine saw themselves as part of the overall Arab territories which were under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. During that period, the disputes were on the basis of religious background and not on national background. In addition to these, came the rise of Zionism. 1917-1948 The period of the British Mandate of Palestine, in which both parties were under British rule and under a single political entity, called Palestine in English. During this period significant Jewish immigration from Europe altered the demographic balance. The term "The Israeli–Palestinian conflict" was not used, and instead the conflict was referred to as "the Jewish-Arab conflict over the Land of Palestine" (by the Arab population and the British population), "the Jewish-Arab conflict over Eretz-Israel" (by the Jewish population). Dating Back into History... 1947-1949 Immigration of the Jewish peoples fleeing persecution Into Palestine Local Palestinian population of Muslim Arabs felt that the influx of newcomers was threatening their way of life Frequent Bloody
Clashes May 14 1948
Palestinians, led by the Arab Higher Committee, moved first.
a wave of anti-Jewish protests,
Jewish shops were looted
Jewish people attacked The Prime Minister Ben Gurion declared the Independence of Israel, only one day before the end of the mandate, and in a climate of fear and violence The United Nations Partition Plan (1947) had decided that partition was the best way to stop the fighting in Palestine
Jews 55%, Arabs 45% Arabs Reject The Jewish - leader Ben-Gurion -gave it a cautious welcome. However, all sides knew that the British rule was coming to an end.
Their ‘Mandate’ (permission) to rule only lasted until May 15 1948.
Both sides waited for the momentous day- to see who would be able to take what. Immediate Events Arab League countries declared war on the new Israel immediately. Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon all planned invasions.
The idea was to crush Israel before it could become established. Disaster for
Arabic nations Only the Jordanians and the Egyptians made any real gains. The Jordanians grabbed East Jerusalem and the ‘West Bank’ land. The Egyptians gained a strip of coast-line called the ‘Gaza strip’.
1949 the United Nations declared a cease-fire on the ‘Green Line’.
Israel signed armistice agreements with all the Arab states, and its territory grew by an estimated 25%. Conclusion Israel won the right to exist and the Arabs lost ground in the war, however, is the conflict ceasing at this point of time? Land Conflicts Arab-Israel Conflict 1947-1973 Historical Background Suez Crisis
1956 1952 Army officers ‘The Free Officers Movement’ in Egypt overthrew the King (Farouk) and put Gamal Nasser in power.
Nasser was anti-colonialist, and Arab nationalist. He also had ideas of pan-Arabism which won him much support from other Arab countries. Britain, and others, initially regarded him as a possible strong leader who might help to solve the Arab-Israeli crisis In Fact, he may have made things worse He managed to remove British influence over the Suez canal and won huge loans from Britain and America for the building of the Aswan High Dam.
However, began arms trading with Communist countries. Britain and the USA were furious and cut his funding. In retaliation Nasser promptly nationalized (took control of) the Suez Canal (1956) precipitating a crisis between Europe and Egypt Lousy Excuse Britain was already angry Nasser had already influenced policy in Jordan
France was convinced that Nasser was funding terrorists in the French colony of Algeria
Israel was concerned with powerful Communist support for Syria on her Northern border Diplomatic victory for Egypt, Humiliation for Israel, Britain and France Due to the disputes over land, tension of the Arab-Israel Conflict was heightened Six Day War
1967 Before After May 16 - Nasser began massing his troops in the Sinai Peninsula on Israel's border overlooking the Straits of Tiran, Israel reiterated declarations made in 1957 that any closure of the Straits would be considered an act of war, or justification for war May 22 - Nasser declared the Straits closed to Israeli shipping on On May 30, Jordan and Egypt signed a defense pact.
May 23 - AJordan's invitation, the Iraqi army began deploying troops and armored units in Jordan June 1 -Israel formed a National Unity Government by widening its cabinet, and on June 4 the decision was made to go to war. The next morning, Israel launched a large-scale surprise air strike that was the opening of the Six-Day War. Outcome of the War Total victory Israel
Surviving troops surrendered, or fled across the Jordan River
Arab refugees followed them into makeshift camps
Israel had restored its image as an independent and strong nation
Israel was now three times bigger than it had been in 1966
The pan-Arab ideas of Nasser had taken a huge knock Arab-Israel Conflict 1979-Present A series of suicide bombings and attacks
Sbarro pizza restaurant suicide bombing
Caused 15 Israeli civilians killed
More than 130 wounded Syria, allied with the Palestine Liberation Organization, positioned missiles in Lebanon. Israel invaded Lebanon. Within two months the PLO agreed to withdraw. Began when a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule in the Palestinian Territories from the Jabalia refugee camp and quickly spread throughout Gaza, the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Israeli and Palestinian representatives engaged in peace talks in Oslo, Norway.
In September 1993, Israel and the PLO signed the Oslo Accords known as the Declaration of Principles.
Israel recognized the PLO as the legitimate representative of the Palestinian people
PLO recognized the right of the state of Israel to exist
Renounced terrorism, violence and its desire for the destruction of Israel Oslo II
Division of the West Bank into Areas A, B, and C
Area A --full Palestinian civilian control. Palestinians were responsible for internal security.
The Oslo agreements remain important documents in Israeli-Palestinian relations. Yom Kippur War 1973 The Israeli military were caught off guard and unprepared, and took about three days to fully mobilize Oct 6 - Oct 25 1973 Began when the coalition launched a joint surprise attack on Israel on Yom Kippur, the holiest day in Judaism. caused an indirect confrontation between the US and the Soviet Union. When Israel had turned the tide of the war, the USSR threatened military intervention. The United States, wary of nuclear war, secured a ceasefire on October 25 But the Israeli military managed to clinch victory despite the initial setback March 1983-85
Israel and Lebanon signed a ceasefire agreement. However, Syria pressured President Amin Gemayel into abolishing the truce in March 1984. By 1985, Israeli forces withdrew to a 15 km wide southern strip of Lebanon, until its complete withdrawal in May 2000 First Lebanon War First Intifada Palestinian actions ranged from civil disobedience to violence.
General strikes, boycotts on Israeli products, graffiti and barricades
Stone-throwing by youths against the Israel
Defense Forces brought the Intifada international attention. Largest military operation conducted by Israel since the Six Day War Second Intifada Operation Defensive Shield Violence between the Israeli army and Palestinian militants intensified Israel established a complicated system of roadblocks and checkpoints around major Palestinian areas to deter violence and protect Israeli settlements Therefore Since 2008, the IDF has slowly transferred authority to Palestinian security forces 2000 1981 1987 Mid 1993 1995 Destruction UN-sponsored ceasefire went into effect on August 14, 2006, officially ending the conflict Second Lebanon War Hezbollah fighters crossed the border from Lebanon into Israel, attacked and killed eight Israeli soldiers, and abducted two others as hostages Killed over a thousand people, mostly Lebanese civilians - Displaced approx. one mil. Lebanese and 300,000–500,000 Israelis, although most were able to return to their homes Severely damaged Lebanese civil infrastructure
Some parts of Southern Lebanon remained uninhabitable due to Israeli unexploded cluster bomblets July 2006 2007-2009 Battle of Gaza After winning Palestinian legislative elections in 2006, Hamas and Fatah formed the Palestinan authority national unity government in 2007, headed by Ismail Haniya In June 2007, Hamas(Classified as a terrorist organization) took control of the Gaza Strip and removed Fatah officials. Hamas offered Israel a one-year extension of the truce that was in force and announced they would refuse to honor past agreements between the Palestinian government and Israel Israel placed restrictions on its border with Gaza borders
Ended economic cooperation with the Palestinian leadership based in Gaza
US and the EU cut off aid to Gaza Gaza Blockade
Israel and Egypt imposed a blockade on the Gaza Strip Israel maintains the blockade is necessary to limit Palestinian rocket attacks from Gaza and to prevent Hamas from smuggling advanced rockets and weapons capable of hitting its cities Latest Update
13 Palestinian militant movements led by Hamas initiated a terror campaign designed to derail and disrupt the negotiations.
Attacks on Israelis have increased exponentially since August 2010, after 4 Israeli civilians were killed by Hamas militants. Palestinian militants have increased the frequency of rocket attacks aimed at Israelis. On August 2, Hamas militants launched seven Katyusha rockets at Eilat and Aqaba, killing one Jordanian civilian and wounding 4 others tatus quo What we believe Arab-Israeli Conflict: Basic Facts. 1999 Israel Science and Technology Directory. 5/2/2011 <http://www.science.co.il/arab-israeli-conflict.asp>.
The Arab-Israeli Conflict. January 16, 2008 Israël - Palestina Informatie. 3/2/2011 <http://www.israel-palestina.info/arab-israeli_conflict.html>.
Lorch, Netanel, “The Arab-Israeli Wars”, Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 5/2/2011, http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/History/Modern%20History/Centenary%20of%20Zionism/The%20Arab-Israeli%20Wars
Timeline of Arab-Israeli Conflict. The Israeli Project . 29/1/2011 <Arab-Israeli Conflict: Basic Facts. 1999 Israel Science and Technology Directory. 5/2/2011 . >.
"Arab-Israeli Conflict." New World Encyclopedia. 2011. 5/2/2011 <http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Arab-Israeli_Conflict>.
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Ami , Isseroff. Israel and Palestine: A Brief History . 2001 MidEastWeb. 5/2/2011 <http://www.mideastweb.org/briefhistory.htm>.
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