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Ethnic Group Project

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by

Alma Lorenzo

on 31 October 2013

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Transcript of Ethnic Group Project

1521-1821
1810
1880's
1836-1845
1519
pre-1492-1518
Origins in the Borderlands: early Settlement and Law of the Indies 1521-1821
Spanish speaking people migration to the Southwest

Law of the Indies
Mexican Independence September 16, 1810-1821
Cinco de Mayo is NOT Mexican independence: Battle of Puebla (Mexican army defeats French army in 1865)
Migration to the Southwest
War torn Mexico:
Spanish, French, and civil unrest
U.S. and Mexican War 1836-1845
migration of European Americans to Mexican territory (Texas)
1836 Texas gains independence
President Polk and Manifest Destiny
Ulysses S. Grant, Abraham Lincoln,
67 Whig representatives, Ohio
representative Tom Corwin,
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David
Thoreau, and Frederick Douglas

Treaty of Guadalupe signed in 1848
The Railroad (1880's)
critical role in facilitating migration
by 1910 about 15,000 miles of railroad had been completed
travel from interior of Mexico to the border was easy
served as a channel for transporting Mexican workers
Pre-Columbian history
(pre-1492-1518)
domesticated corn, avocados, chili pepper, squash, beans
Complex societies: Teotihuacan, Tenochtitlan, Monte Alban, Olmec, Toltec, Mayan
pyramid-temples, astrology, mathematics, medicine, theology
Spanish Conquest
1519
Population: 25 million indigenous people before arrival

Population after conquest: 1 million

Mestizaje: religion, language, culture, people
Educational Attainment
Historical Timeline
Mexican-American Ethnic Group Project
by Alma Collin, Nelly Gomez, Sue Park, & Alma Lorenzo
Mexican Revolution 1910
Overthrow of Porfirio Diaz dictatorship

Migration of the middle class to the U.S.
poor, working class Mexicans migrate for 1 of 2 reasons:
women: escape violence
avoid being forced to fight in the war
1910
"Operation Deportation" & Repatriation 1930's
1930
the Great Depression and nativist feelings reached an all time high
Repatriation: supposed to be "voluntarily" returning to home country
Procedures: raids, forced deportation, denied Due Process (4th Amendment)
estimated that 500,000 Mexicans and U.S. born Mexican Americans were "repatriated"
1917
Immigration Act of 1917
set limits on immigration from Europe, established literacy test, and head tax for immigrants
industrialists and growers:
favored an open border
pressured to waive requirements for Mexican immigrants between 1917-1920
1921
Immigration Act of 1921
restricted immigration from eastern and southern Europe


Agribusinesses lobbied Congress successfully to exclude Mexican immigrants despite pressure to add them in the bill
1942
The Bracero Program (1942-1964)
binational agreement
general guidelines to protect Mexican workers:
to be provided round-trip transportation
to be provided adequate housing
to be provided minimum number of working days
to be provided minimum wages
to be protected from discrimination
to not be used to displace domestic workers or lower their wages
agreement not honored:
growers established minimum wages
standard work contract: receive no less that $2 a day
worker paid board ($1,75) and insurance ($0.09)= net earning $0.16 per day
protect domestic labor from unfair competition not upheld
1943
The Zoot Suit Riots 1943
Los Angeles: soldiers, Marines, & sailors attack youth wearing Zoot Suits

Zoot Suiters were predominantly marginalized youth
Operation Wetback 1954-1958
flow of undocumented immigrants increased in 1950's
period of intense and politically open and socially repressing against the Mexican
President Eisenhower
General Joseph May Swing named commissioner of INS and in charge of Operation Wetback
The Chicano Movement/ El Movimiento
UFW led by Cesar Chavez
Urban Movement led by Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzalez
1968 East Los Angeles walkouts & Sal Castro
Land Reform led by Reis Lopez Tijerina
1954-1958
1960's
Today
Contemporary Issues
Arizona: House Bill 2281
banned books
elimination of ethnic studies (2010)
SB 1070
the glue that is bringing this group together is the current debate of immigration reform
Immigrant youth movement: the DREAM Act
Problems & Issues
Discrimination
Contributions
Mexican American participation in wars
WW II: ~500,000 Mexican Americans joined the armed forces
1947: American GI Forum and LULAC won Supreme Court ruling, which declared that segregating Latinos was unconstitutional
Cowboys
Entertainment: Selena Quintanilla, Mario Lopez, Selena Gomez....
Art
Yolanda M. Lopez (painter)
Sports
Ted Williams: best baseball hitter, 521 home runs
US Marine Oscar De La Hoya: 10 time World Champion
Food
Tamales, Mole, Enchiladas, Tacos, Pan Dulce (Sweet Bread)
Carmen Lomas Garza (painter)
"Camas para Suenos"
"Loteria-Tabla Llena"
"Finding strength in our culture so that no one else can define us."
-unknown

Population
33.7 million Hispanics of Mexican origin resided in the United States in 2012 (11.4 million immigrants born in Mexico +22.3 million born in the U.S.)
11% of U.S. population

Population Trend
(Population Growth)
Percent Hispanic of the U.S. Population 2050
The net migration flow from Mexico to the
U.S. has stopped and may have reversed
During the five-year period from 2005 to 2010, a total of 1.4 million Mexicans immigrated to the United States, down by more than half from the 3 million who had done so in the five-year period of 1995 to 2000.
Regional Dispersion
More than half (52%) of Mexican-origin Hispanics live in the West, mostly in California (36%), and another 35% live in the South, mostly in Texas (26%). There is no significant difference in the regional dispersion of Mexicans by nativity.
Very large share of Mexican immigrants have not completed high school.
Whereas 28 percent of natives have at least a four-year college degree, only 4.4 percent of Mexican immigrants have a college or graduate degree.
Employment
Poverty Status
Mexican Immigrants Have Very High Poverty Rates
Income
Mexican Immigrants Have Much Lower Average Incomes Than Natives
Figure 10 shows average income from all sources for immigrants and natives in 2000.
The average income for adult Mexican immigrants of $18,952 a year is less than half that of natives.
Compared with other immigrants to the U.S., Mexican-born immigrants are younger, poorer, less-educated, less likely to be fluent in English and less likely to be naturalized citizens.
Political Figures
Susana Martinez
Romualdo Pacheco
Health Problems
1) the lack of access to affordable health care & health insurance
2) the lack of health research on Mexican American community
Family Structure
1) importance of extended families
2) separation of families

Language Barriers
1) Parents: Spanish speakers only
2) Students: Lose part of native language to take in the American language

Roman Catholicisim is the dominant religion in Mexico

After the conquest by the Spanish, Mexico's indigenous peoples readily accepted Catholic beliefs and practices, but they did so on the basis of their pre-Hispanic religious beliefs. The Virgin of Guadalupe, for example, was associated with the pagan goddess Tonantzin. As a result, Mexican folk Catholicism is frequently described as syncretic. Catholic beliefs pervade the life of ordinary Mexicans. Because the Catholic Church has been a very powerful institution in Mexican history, its relationship with the state has at times been tense and sometimes openly hostile. In recent decades, Protestant missionaries have been particularly active in southern Mexico and among the urban poor.

Religious Practitioners
Catholic priests, are the most important practitioners who conduct regular masses and officiate over events such as birth, weddings, death, and quince años (the initiation ceremony for girls). Priests also perform more quotidian rituals such as the blessing of new houses or cars. As parish priests are profoundly involved in the social life of local communities, their influence reaches beyond religious matters.
Rituals and Holy Places
Mexico's most significant religious rituals are determined by the Catholic calendar. Easter ( Semana Santa ) is perhaps the most important of all. In different places within Mexico, the reenactment of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ on Good Friday is attended by great crowds. The largest is in Iztapalapa in Mexico City and attracts more than 100,000 believers.
Religion
The nation's patron saint, the Virgin of Guadalupe, has her shrine in Mexico City, near the hill of Tepeyac, where she first appeared in 1531. The huge modern basilica there attracts hundreds of thousands of pilgrims from all over the country every year, especially on 12 December, Guadalupe's Day. Every community (rural or urban) has its own patron saint who is honored with processions and fiestas every year.
Familia
The Latino community is known to have very strong family ties, exhibiting a trait of being group-oriented. They are frequently found living and working within the same area. In Latino/a culture, one’s familia is one of the major sources of identity, individuality, and protection. Familismo or the sense of belonging into is intense and not often limited to family and friends.
Manners
Spanish speaking people value formality as form of conduct.
Common practices are giving a handshake for greeting and leaving, hugging and kissing are also practiced between close men and women who are a part of circle or family.
Their native language offers different forms of formal and informal address; using familiar and polite commands and the uses of titles such as Don and Dona are valued.

Health
Several folk health-providers exist and have a regular clientele. Herbalists can be found at local markets. Curanderos ("healers") use traditional curing procedures and medicinal plants. Spiritualist healers consider themselves religious practitioners first and alternative health-providers second.
Values & beliefs
Main Religious Holidays
Miercoles de Ceniza
Ash Wednesday
Domingo de Ramos
Palm Sunday
Jueves Santo
Maundy (Holy) Thursday
Viernes Santo
Good Friday
Dia de Pascua
Easter

Dia de los muertos (Dia de todos los fieles Difuntos)

• November 2nd
• All souls day (day of the dead)

Dia de Navidad
Christmas Day
Dia de los Reyes Magos (Day of the wise men)
January 6

Other Holidays
o Dia de la Raza
o Dia de las Americas
o Dia de la Bandera
o Dia del Maestro
o Dia de la Madre
o Noche Vieja
o Dia de año Nuevo
o Dia de la Independencia (Chart)

Cinco De Mayo
o The Battle against the French is celebrated on May 5, remembering the victory of Mexican forces over the French invaders in the hills near the city of Puebla in 1862. It took the French a year to bring reinforcements and take the Mexican capital in 1863.
Independence Day
September 16, celebrates the start of the struggle for independence in 1810, which began when the Catholic priest Miguel Hidalgo y Castilla rang the church bells in the village of Dolores and called upon the parishioners to drive out the Spanish.
Grito de Dolores is repeated ritually on the night of 15 September by the authorities throughout Mexico and even by ambassadors abroad. The ritual ends with the vigorous shouting of " Viva México " three times.
On the morning of 16 September there are military parades organized by the government. Independence Day is the most important civic ritual and enjoys broad popular participation. During the whole month of September houses, offices, and public buildings are decorated with the colors of the Mexican flag.

Corpus Christi
15th day after Easter
Honoring Eucharist (Consecrated bread used in the holy communion)
Dia de Todos Los Santos
November 1st
All saints day

Nochebuena
Christmas Eve

**In addition each country, region, city, and town has its own patron saint
-Fiestas Patronales

November 20, the planned uprising of Francisco Madero against the dictator Porfirio Díaz in 1910 that marked the beginning of the Mexican Revolution. It is mainly a state-orchestrated event that arouses modest popular participation. The main event is the long sports parade in front of the National Palace (Palacio National) in the center of Mexico City.

The Day of the Revolution
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