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Photography Studio, Lighting and Pin-Hole Manual
Transcript of Photography Studio, Lighting and Pin-Hole Manual
-Snoot: This is a very steep cone-like head, which provides a spotlight style of light source. This is again hard light as there is no diffuser present to soften the light.
-Softbox: This is a large rectangular head, which is made out of light plastic so that it can be easily folded away for storage. They come in a wide range of sizes, and provide a soft diffused light source on the subject. There are a couple of diffusers present within the softbox, which can be removed to provide different levels of harshness.
-Honeycomb: This is a head that allows for more direct lighting on a certain part of the subject. As the name suggests, it’s made out of tiny hexagons to form a honeycomb style plate, which can be clipped over the top of an existing spill kill. It’s not as direct as a snoot, but can still provide a very direct light source with a slightly diffused look.
-Umbrella: This is a common piece of equipment for photographing portraits (A common sight at school photographs); it’s used to reflect light from a flash backwards onto the subject. This involves the flash having to be positioned facing away from the subject. It provides a softer more even light onto the subject, but can also be used to diffuse the light if faced towards the subject. A black cover can be removed to provide a translucent umbrella to shoot the flash through. (Left-Click a Section To View, then use the left and right arrows keys to advance through) -Fan: This can be used to add wind movement to subjects, and is especially useful when creating dramatic headshots. -Stepladder: Useful when a higher vantage point is needed, and provides another angle to examine the lighting in a shot. It can also be used as a prop. -Transmitters: The transmitters are used to transmit the signal from the camera to the flash sequence, so that they flash at the correct moment. This is done using either sync cables, or by radio transmitters.
-The sync cable connects to the socket at the back of the light and connects to a connector on the camera itself. -The radio transmitters act in the same way as the sync cable, but this time they use wireless radio signals to transmit instead of a cable. The frequency is set on the transmitter unit and a receiver unit. The transmitter is attached to the hot shoe of the camera, while the receiver is attached to the light in the same socket that’s used for the sync cable. This is a Snoot with a honeycomb adapter There are portable lights available, which are very useful when shooting outdoors. These lights are the same as the 500k studio lights, and so all the functions are the same (See Section 2b: Lighting). There a few bits of kit that are necessary for shooting outside. -Battery – The battery is the main and sometimes only power source when shooting outside of a studio. It has the option of a fast or slow recharge rate. The fast recharge rate allows for more shots to be taken quickly, but drains the battery more quickly. The slow recharge allows more shots to be taken altogether, but takes longer to recharge. There is a cable that connects the battery to the flash, and an LED meter to show the charge left. -Tripod – The tripod is used to mount the light on, and can be adjusted to various different heights using the screw handles. (Note: The higher the tripod is raised, the more unstable the light becomes) -Reflectors – These can be used in and out of the studio, and come in a range of sizes and colours. These are useful for when you have a limited number of lights, or just want a part of the subject softly illuminated. They are made of reflective material that can bounce light onto the subject if positioned correctly. Here are some examples of outdoor shots, and lighting set-ups to show how they were taken. Lit using a light with a soft-box in front of the main subject, with the second subject being lit by sunlight. A light meter reading was taken from the subject behind, as the sunlight was out of our control. This reading was then matched for the subject in front, so that they were both exposed evenly. Lit in a tunnel using a low light with a soft-box, and a reflector to the left of the subject. A light meter reading was taken of the background, and then the camera set 2 stops up, to darken it. The main subject was then light metered and exposed correctly. Lit in the same tunnel using just a strong light with a soft-box, using the same light meter technique as before. In this section I’ll show you how you can create your own pin-hole camera, and how to use it to create some really interesting shots! Pin-hole photography has been around since the very start, with something called a camera obscura. A camera obscura is constructed by blocking out all the light in a room, apart from one tiny hole on a window. The view from outside is the projected inside the room as an image. This is the basis of photography today. Image by Abelardo Morell. Can be found here: http://www.photographsdonotbend.co.uk/2009/09/abelardo-morell-camera-obscura.html In this section, I will show you how to make your own pin-hole camera A pin-hole camera works by the same principle, but allows for portability. You will need:
- A light proof empty container for your camera. For example, a small box, a drinks can or build your own box out of strong card.
- Strong black tape (Electrical tape, duct-tape etc)
- Thick Card
- A pencil
- A pin
- A ruler
-Matte black spray paint 1)To start with, ensure your container is empty and clean inside. I’m using an old drinks can. If the container has a lid, remove and discard it, you won’t need it as it probably isn’t light proof. If you're using a drinks can like me, cut the top off with a craft knife, and tape over the sharp edges. 2)Using the scissors, cut a strip of card roughly half the height of the container, and long enough to wrap fully around, with a slight overlap. 3)Wrap the card around the container and using the tape, stick the two ends together to form a ring. This will be the basis of the new, light-proof lid. 4)Slide the ring to the top of the container like so, leaving an overlap. 5)Fold the overlapping card into the centre like so, and tape it together. You can cut slits in the overlapping card, if this helps. 6)Using the tape, seal any holes in the card, and tape up all the edges thoroughly. You don’t want any unwanted light getting into the container. You now have a light proof lid for your camera! 7)Now remove the lid and place it to one side. 8)To create the aperture and shutter, first find the middle of the container, between the top and the bottom, using a ruler. Mark this point with the pencil, like so. 9)Using the pin, push a small hole into the container. Try not to move the pin around too much, as you want the hole to be as precise as possible. You now have an aperture! 10)Using the ruler, measure how high up your aperture is from the base of the container. Put the lid back over the container, and mark that same distance onto the card, like so, and draw a straight line all the way around. You will need to cut away the card below that line, and a little over, so that the lid doesn’t cover your aperture. 11)Cut away the card and discard it. If your lid still covers the aperture, trim off a little more until it doesn’t. 12)To make a shutter, cut a small square of card and place it over the aperture. Secure it in place with 2 pieces of tape, like so. You now have a shutter! Your camera is now complete! Follow the instructions in the next section to learn how to use it effectively! 4c: Improvements Flags/Reflectors - These are used to 'bounce' or reflect the light back onto the subject or to a different part of the frame. This allows for softer light in certain areas, and means another light doesn't have to be used. 2e: Examples Here are some examples using the equipment In the previous sections, along with lighting diagrams. This image was taken using a snoot adapter on a 500k light. The power was set to a medium setting, and positioned close to the subject. We light metered the subject, and then dropped the exposure by 1 stop, to create the glowing effect on the face. This also created dramatic shadows behind the subject. This image was created using the same set-up, but with the subject correctly exposed. A snoot adapter is a great piece of kit for producing dramatic shots with a lot of shadows. This image was created using a soft-box on a 500k light focused on the subject, and a second soft-box focused on the background behind the subject. First the background was light metered, and the camera settings set accordingly. We then light metered the subject to match these settings, to get an even exposure. These images were taken using the large studio reflectors/flags. Both were taken using a single soft-box to the left of the image, and the reflector on the right. The image at the top was taken using a white reflector, and the image below using a black reflector. By positioning the subject between the light source and the white reflector, the reflected light comes back much softer. With the black reflector, the light is absorbed and dispersed, and so the face appears darker. Using a Light Meter and Zonal System Image Found Here: http://www.wexphotographic.com/webcontent/product_images/large/216/1006844.jpg The light meter is a vital part of a studio photographers kit. It allows for accurate exposure, and can help when a certain effect or outcome is required. On the right is a diagram of the zone system. These are the different zones of light from 0 (Complete Black) to X (Complete White). The light meter will automatically expose to zone 5. To alter this, use the zone system and different stops up and down on the camera. Power Moveable Dome Reader 'Expose' Button Adjuster Arrows 'Mode' Buttons (Daylight, flash, cable flash etc) ISO Setting Flash Sync Socket - Flash Guns - These are useful for when a large flash on a tripod isn't practical. They can be attached to the top of a camera using the hot-shoe, and have a number of flash settings. A couple of flash guns can be linked together using infrared transmitters and recievers built into the flash body (If model is compatible) These two images were taken using the portable flash guns. Both were shot using a flash on the top of the camera. In the image on the left, the flash was pointed directly at the subject on a low power setting, and a secondary flash was used to illuminate the right side of the subejcts face. In the image on the right, the flash was angle towards the ceiling, and a secondary flash was used to illuminate the left side of the subjects face. Once you’ve got the hang of taking some pictures, there are a couple of improvements you can make to your camera. -1. Using the black spray paint, paint the inside of your container with a light layer of paint, this will stop any light bouncing around inside. 2. Using the craft knife, cut away the aperture and make a small square hole. Stick a piece of tin foil over the hole, and use the pin to make a new aperture in the foil. This new aperture will have smoother edges, and so will make the image more in focus. -3. Here is my camera, which I have adapted and improved. I cut the original container in half, and used that as a secure front to the camera. -I then extended the back of the container with card to remove the curve in the images, and to make them easier to frame. I also made a flap to insert the paper more precisely. -I used a tin foil aperture, and a very small needle to make it more accurate. -I also made the camera extra light-proof by putting it inside another box, and sealing the edges with more tape. 4c: How To Use a Pin-Hole Camera In this section I'll show you how to use your newly acquired pin-hole camera Using photo-paper, load the camera in a darkroom or any other pitch black room, ensuring the paper is cut to fit at the back of the camera, facing the aperture. To take a picture, simply set the camera up facing the scene you want to photograph, then by hand bull back the shutter and hold it away from the aperture. Exposure times are trial and error to begin with, so be prepared to go through a few sheets of paper! I would suggest an exposure time of 30 seconds in cloudy daylight, and 10 seconds in bright sunlight to begin with. It's that easy! Enjoy using your new camera!