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Jane Loevinger - Ego Development

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Sabine Turenne

on 9 December 2013

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Transcript of Jane Loevinger - Ego Development

• Jane Loevinger was born on February 6th 1918 in St Paul, Minnesota, and died in 2008.• In 1938 she graduated from University of Minnesota at the age of 19 with a degree in psychology and trigonometry and a year later earned a Master of Science degree in psychometrics.

• She was a developmental psychologist, well-known for her work in psychometrics (the branch of psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and personality traits.

• In 1970, Jane Loevinger and her colleagues created and published the Washington University Sentence Completion Test, which was “originally developed to assess women’s moral development, interpersonal relationships, and conceptual complexity. However, the test was later adapted for men. It was soon after, that her work expanded toego development and moral understanding in general
Identification of Theoriist
Loevinger describes the ego as a process and not a thing.

The ego is viewed as the frame of reference or lens that an individual uses to construct and interpret the world. This contains impulse control and character development with interpersonal relations, and with cognitive preoccupations including self concept.

Loevinger’s ego development theory is composed of nine different stages; she believed that each stage represents a progressively more complex way of perceiving oneself in relation to the world.

Every stage provides a frame of reference to organize and give meaning to experience over the individual life course.

Loevinger believed that you cannot skip a stage; you have to go through each one in a sequential order.
Identification of Theory
Presocial Stage (E1)
1. Presocial Stage (E1)
2. Impulse Stage (E2)
3. Self Protective stage (E3)
4. Conformist Stage (E4)
5. Self Aware Stage (E5)
6. Conscientious Stage (E6)
7. Individualistic Stage (E7)
8. Autonomous Stage (E8)
9. Integrated Stage (E9)
The 9 Stages of Ego Development
Jane Loevinger - Ego Development
Candace H.
Sabine T.
Cedric A.
Linette S.
Selina
Rori P.

The first stage in Loevinger’s ego development theory is the presocial stage (E1).

This stage occurs during infancy to about the age of one, during this time a child shows signs of strong attachments to their mothers; they have exclusive focus on gratification on immediate needs.

They are able to differentiate their mother from the rest of the environment; however, they are not able to differentiate themselves from their mother.

This stage is excluded from the sentence completion test, as children of this age do not have the mental capacity to respond to the test.
Application to Perez Family
Maritza, the youngest daughter in the Perez family identifies with this stage.

Since the move to the United States from Argentine, she has become clingier and attached to her mother.

She has regressed in her speech and is having potty accidents; it almost seems as if she is demonstrating infant like behaviors.
Impulsive Stage (E2)
In this stage, the child
strengthens
his growing sense of self and views the world in ego-centric terms.

The child will be
too immersed in the moment
and only
focusing on how things affect them directly
.

These impulses
affirm their sense of self
.

The child is
dependent, demanding,
and the child only wants the satisfaction for his or her own needs and wants.


The impulsive individual looks only to the present, not the past or future, and classifications are quite simple and generalized such as
“good” versus “bad” or “mean to me” versus “good to me”
When someone meets their needs they are considered ‘good’, and if they do not meet their needs they are considered ‘bad’
Application to Perez Family

Maritza
, age 3, is always by her mother’s side. So we can assume that, just as a normal child,
Maritza
demands needs of attention or self.

If she does not get her way, we can also assume she would cry, get mad, or label someone as ‘mean’ or ‘bad’.

Also,
Roselina
focuses on herself over family and would much rather be with her friends.
Ego Development Sentence Completion Test
1. When a child will not join in group activities……………..
2. Raising a family………………
3. When I am criticized…………………..
4. A man’s job………………..
5. Being with other people…………………………
6. The thing I like about myself is…………………………
7. My mother and I……………………………….
8. What gets me into trouble is……………………
9. Education………………………………….
10. When people are helpless…………….
11. Women are lucky because…………..
12. A good father……………………………
13. A girl has a right to………………………
14. When they talk about sex I………………………….
15. A wife should……………………..
16. I feel sorry…………………
17. A man feels good when…………………….

18. Rules are………………………
19. Crime and delinquency could be halted if……………………..
20. Men are lucky because………………………
21. I just can’t stand people who…………………
22. At times she worried about……………….
23. I am……………………….
24. A woman feels good when………………..
25. My main problem is………………
26. A husband has a right to……………….
27. The worst thing about being a woman…………………
28. A good mother………………..
29. When I am with a man………………
30. Sometimes she wished that………………
31. My father………………
32. If I can’t get what I want……………………
33. Usually she felt that sex……………………
34. For a woman a career is………………….
35. My conscience bothers me if………………………
36. A woman should always………………………………

• Involves controlling impulses

• Very common in early and middle childhood

• Person will externalize blame

• Desires rigid order

• Getting what they want without getting caught (Syed, M., & Seiffge-Krenke, I., 2013)

• Someone who stays in this stage may have the following characteristics as an adult: cunning, deceptive, and focused on control.

• Juvenile delinquents and inmates score high on this stage of self-protection (DiNapoli, P., 2002

• Yesenia and Gariella are in this stage
The Self-Protective Stage (E3)
The Conformist Stage (E4)
• Occurs around school age

• Conforming to codes and norms that are socially acceptable

• There is a right and wrong way to do things

• Approval and rejection of peers identifies norms

• Group acceptance is important

• Shame and happiness peak at this stage

• Lupe, Roselina, Anna, and Gracelia are all at this stage
The Self Awareness Stage (E5)
- Stage that most adults go through

- Individuals become more aware of their own feelings and the feelings of others

- Are able to look at multiple possibilities for things they encounter on a daily basis

- Individuals become more self-critical

- Individuals look at what they believe, their belief system, how do they perceive theories, subjects; what are their thoughts about death, religion and belief in a higher power.

- Aware of his family expectation due to it being expressed to him

- Wanted to go to college

- He is gay
Case study Application: Rolando
- Very similar to self-awareness stage

- Individual is more self

- Critical and places value on self-evaluation

- They believe that responsibility is a priority

- Like to set long-term goals

- They like looking at the broader picture not simply the momentary instances

- Morality and sense of principles is emphasized based on personal experience

- Achievement is very important
Conscientious Stage (E6)
- Placed the responsibility of the family on himself

- Looked at the broader picture bring family to America for better opportunities

- Took on more responsibility because of father’s passing

- High sense of morality because of belief that taking care of the family is very important

- Wanted to achieve the American dream so he overworked himself

Case Study Application: Luis
Focuses on relationships increases, and although achievement is still valued, relationships tend to be more valued even more.

The individualistic ego shows a broad-minded tolerance of and respect for the autonomy of both the self and others.

Individualistic Stage (E7)
Heightened sense of individuality and self-understanding can lead to vivid and unique ways of expressing the self as well as to an awareness of inner conflicts and personal paradoxes.

But this is an incipient awareness of conflicting wishes and thoughts and feelings—for closeness and distance, for achievement and acceptance, and so on, but there is unlikely to yet be any resolution or integration of these inner conflicts.
continued...
There is increasing respect for one’s own and others’ autonomy.

The autonomous ego cherishes individuality and uniqueness and self-actualization; individuals’ unique and unexpected paths are a source of joy.

These independent paths are no longer seen in opposition to depending on each other; rather relationships are appreciated as an interdependent system of mutual support; in other words, it takes a village to raise and sustain an autonomous ego.

The Autonomous Stage (E8)
continued...
There is also greater tolerance of ambiguity.

In particular, conflicts, both inner conflicts & conflicts between people are appreciated as inevitable expressions of the fluid & multifaceted nature of people and of life in general.

They are more easier faced & coped with.

The heightened and acute awareness of one’s own inner space is manifest in vivid ways of articulating feelings.
Rolando in the Perez Family Case Study
In connection to the case study of the Perez, we see Rolando wants to please his father and continues to work in the vineyard instead of joining college.

In this case Rolando valued his relationship with his family, that’s why he was ready to foregone his college study and take care of the vine yard.
Rolando is going through inner conflicts.

Due to the fact that he is a gay, but he does not want to be known to his family since it would bring shame.

continued...
Rolando is starting to feel an enormous burden because his mother has told him that he is now the “man of the family” and needs to fill his father’s role while he is ill.

Rolando’s grandmother tells him the pride that both his now deceased grandfather and father have in his ability to run the vineyard.

Rolando became respectful in the family.

THE INTEGRATIVE STAGE (E9)
As a result of her research, Loevinger found that less than 1% of adults in the United States reach this stage.

At this stage the ego:

Shows Wisdom
Displays empathy towards oneself and others
Is able to reconcile inner conflicts
Makes peace with unsolvable issues
Makes peace with experiences that are unattainable


continued...
Feels safe and has a full sense of identity
Is very accepting of life on life’s terms
Is not anxious
Is living a fulfilled life
Is seeking to understand and actualize its own potentials

Although none of the Perez family members appear to be functioning, or coping with life from a fully integrated stage, some strengths in that direction are noted

Empathy understands and shares the feelings of others:
Carmen displays empathy by praying for her family.
Maria displays empathy by not telling her husband she is pregnant at this time while he is so ill and she realizes things are not right with her life (family).
Rolando shows empathy by putting his own desires aside to work in the vineyard.
Luis works long hours in the vineyard to provide for his family.

Applying to the Perez Family
None of the adults are accepting life on life’s terms in a healthy manner.

Carmen is angry, feels alone and isolates from the family.

Rolando isolates from the rest of the family due to hopelessness, fear and shame.

Maria is fearful to tell her husband she is pregnant
Luis feels guilty about encouraging Rolando to work in the vineyard.

continued...
None of the adults in the Perez family are living fulfilling lives or living up to their potentials.

Carmen moves further from the family and does not help with the children.

Maria is overwhelmed.

Rolando is not attending college, feels burdened, showing signs of depression.




continued...
continued....
None of the adults in the family are able to reconcile and make peace with issues of life.

As social workers we could help them to find resources available to them.

Encourage and assist the adults to communicate in healthy ways.

Locate a priest that would be willing to assist Carmen and Maria.

Encourage the family to find help to work the vineyard so that Rolando may attend college
Full transcript