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AP Fascism (Chp 35)& Nationalism (Chp 36)

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Dawn Ashby

on 9 May 2017

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Transcript of AP Fascism (Chp 35)& Nationalism (Chp 36)

Hitler & Germany
-didn't get land they wanted at the Paris Peace Conference
-democratic gov't wasn't doing enough to solve economic problems, like inflation & unemployment
-wanted a strong leader
How was Italy ready for fascism?
-After WWI, Hitler joined right-wing group; National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi)
-private militia-Brown Shirts
-Hitler named der Fuhrer (leader) of party
-Beer Hall Putsch (1923)-declared in a Munich beer hall that he was seizing power; marched in to the streets
-arrested; served 9 months in prison
Mein Kampf
(My Struggle); vision for Germany & his beliefs
Fascism, Nationalism, & Invasion

After WWI, some countries were ripe for dictators & totalitarian governments
Fascism promised to:
-revive the economy
-punish those who mistreated us
-restore order & pride in nation
Fascism-political system that demands
loyalty to the state & leader
(nationalism to the extreme + militarism)

Similarities b/w fascism & communism
(understand how they're similar/different)
-one political party
-no individual rights
-state is supreme
-no democracy
BUT communists wanted a classless society while uniting
workers from around the world
-Fascists believed classes were necessary & did not want to join other countries; wanted to conquer them
Benito Mussolini
starts Fascist party in

Italy in 1919
-criticized gov't
-wore black & attacked communists/socialists
-played on middle class fears of a workers' revolt
-Oct. 1922-30,000 Fascists marched on Rome
-Demanded King Victor Emmanuel III put Mussolini in charge of the gov't
Il Duce (the leader)
-complete control
-no democracy; only one political party=Fascism
-outlawed strikes
-Fascist propaganda in media
Germans ignore Hitler until
worldwide depression
American loans stop; economy collapses
Nazi party & Communist party gain influence in German parliament
How did Hitler gain power?
President Hindenburg
pressured to name Hitler chancellor (1933); he was promised Hitler would be kept in line
Hitler calls for new elections; Nazis win parliamentary majority (barely) b/c they blamed Communists for burning the Reichstag bldg
Enabling Act-gave Hitler & his cabinet full legislative power for 4 years (many Communist Party members were unable to vote; banned some Social Democrats)
Hindenburg could still veto
-Encouragement of German families to have children
-Honor Cross of the German mother
-tax credits, no abortions, restrictions on birth control
-forced sterilization of "undesirable" people
Book burning, Hitler youth groups
Anti-Semitism; Jews blamed
Emperor Hirohito of Japan
-more democratic, but prime minister & cabinet's power was limited
-Great Depression led military leaders to take control from the weak civilian government
-military reported to emperor, not people
-Emperor Hirohito-more of a figurehead
-Military leaders believed in building a Pacific empire will solve economic problems
-Give Japan raw materials
-Win markets for Japanese goods
-Find space for the growing population
-Despite beating Russia in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), Manchuria had been reclaimed by Russia in 1925
-Previously had a treaty with China; Japanese army seized control of Manchuria in 1931
Italy had attempted to invade Ethiopia in 1890s (failed)
Mussolini invaded Ethiopia, one of three independent African countri
es, in Oct. 1935
League of Nations protested, but took no action
Britain let Italy pass through Suez Canal to get to Ethiopia
Wanted peace; economies still recovering from war & depression
-Germany begins building up its army in 1935; League of Nations condemns act
-Invades Rhineland (buffer zone b/w Germany & France) in 1936
-Hitler can now attack France & Belgium
-Rome-Berlin Axis (1936)-German & Italian alliance formed
-Germany & Japan came to an agreement month later
-together formed Axis Powers

By invading Manchuria again, Japan is disobeying the League of Nations agreement
Second Sino-Japanese War (Sino=China)
1st Sino-Japanese War was in 1894-1895 (Meiji Japan fights Qing dynasty over Korea)
1937-Japan takes Beijing & capital Nanking (or Nanjing)
mass murder, rape, looting over 6 week period
Rape of Nanking
by Iris Chang
Why doesn't the U.S. step in?
-practiced isolationism-avoid political ties to other countries
-Congress passed Neutrality Acts-banned loans, sales of arms to warring nations
Germany annexes Austria (1938)
Third Reich (German Empire)
Austria allows this, even though it's not allowed under Treaty of
Munich Conference held Sept. 29, 1938
Germany, France, Britain, & Italy meet
France & Britain agree to let Hitler take Sudetenland (western Czech borders); Hitler agrees to respect Czech borders
policy of appeasement
British PM Neville Chamberlain "I believe it is peace for our time"
Chp 36
Asian, African, and Latin American Nationalism
Preview activity

Spanish Civil War
Monarchy until 1931--republic
July 1936-army leaders revolted (Nationalists; wanted fascism)
Nationalists received help from Italy & Germany
Republicans received some help from Soviet Union, but lost
Gen. Francisco Franco becomes Fascist dictator
-bloodbath: 1500 killed, 800 injured
-example of what would happen if you stood up to the Nationalists
Mein Kampf
Volume One: A Reckoning
Chapter 1: In the House of my Parents
Chapter 2: Years of Study and Suffering in Vienna
Chapter 3: General Political Considerations Based on my Vienna Period
Chapter 4: Munich
Chapter 5: The World War
Chapter 6: War Propaganda
Chapter 7: The Revolution
Chapter 8: The Beginning of my Political Activity
Chapter 9: The "German Workers' Party"
Chapter 10: Causes of the Collapse
Chapter 11: Nation and Race
Chapter 12: The First Period of Development of the National Socialist German Workers' Party
Volume Two: The National Socialist Movement
Chapter 1: Philosophy and Party
Chapter 2: The State
Chapter 3: Subjects and Citizens
Chapter 4: Personality and the Conception of the Völkisch State
Chapter 5: Philosophy and Organisation
Chapter 6: The Struggle of the Early Period – the Significance of the Spoken Word
Chapter 7: The Struggle with the Red Front
Chapter 8: The Strong Man Is Mightiest Alone
Chapter 9: Basic Ideas Regarding the Meaning and Organization of the Sturmabteilung
Chapter 10: Federalism as a Mask
Chapter 11: Propaganda and Organization
Chapter 12: The Trade-Union Question
Chapter 13: German Alliance Policy After the War
Chapter 14: Eastern Orientation or Eastern Policy
Chapter 15: The Right of Emergency Defense

Narrative alleging a Jewish conspiracy to gain world leadership.
Narrative describes how he became increasingly antisemitic and militaristic
Does not really describe why he hated Jews; speaks of not having met a Jew until he arrived in Vienna, and that at first his attitude was liberal and tolerant.
Hitler denounces the world's twin evils: Communism and Judaism.
Germany needed to obtain certain territory to lead them to the "historic destiny" of the German people; this goal, which Hitler referred to as Lebensraum (living space), explains why Hitler aggressively expanded Germany eastward, specifically the invasions of Czechoslovakia and Poland, before he launched his attack against Russia.
Hitler openly states that the future of Germany "has to lie in the acquisition of land in the East at the expense of Russia."
Blamed Germany’s main problems on the parliament of the Weimar Republic, the Jews, the Social Democrats, & Marxists.
Wanted to completely destroy the parliamentary system; corrupt
-taken from Wikipedia on Mein Kampf
Which countries prior to WWII were fascist?
Why not the Soviet Union?
Italian fascist propaganda
Prigioniera nel Mare. Rome: Istituto Romano di Arti, 1940.

Propaganda pamphlet making the case that Italy is a prisoner in the Mediterranean because it lacks control over Gibraltar, the Suez Canal, and the Dardanelles.

Document decorated with many Fascist symbols, promoting a member of the Fascist youth organization Balilla to captain of his "squadron" for his act of bravery, a vain attempt to rescue a drowning companion.
Assignment book required of every school child. It begins with a full-page photograph of Mussolini, and includes quotations from his speeches and such highlights of Fascist history as the March on Rome and the Concordat between Church and State. They are followed by lists of the books to be used, the hours for each class, hours for teacher consultations, etc. Then begins the "diario" proper, with space for each day and each subject. At the top of each page there is a quotation from Mussolini. This diary not only offers a day-to-day description of the detailed activities of students, but also the method of presenting Fascist doctrine to them.
This book for young readers recounts Italy's conquest of its oldest colony in 1911-1912. The book offers the usual justifications for this and later colonial adventures -- namely, that "civilized nations have not only the right but also the duty to dominate these barbarous countries and bring to them the light of human progress." Many black-and-white full-page reproductions of paintings glorify the actions of Italian soldiers.
An official publication of the Fascist regime justifying Italy's claims to Abyssinia (Ethiopia) on the eve of the conquest: a congeries of backward, poorly governed feudal entities, Abyssinia is seen as presenting grave danger to the Italian colonies of Eritrea and Somalia. The publication describes in some detail the battle of Adua.
Sun Yatsen
-led Nationalist Party & helped overthrow Qing dynasty in 1911
-founding father & 1st president of the Republic of China 1912
-but war lords rule outside Beijing as regional leaders; political anarchy
-war lords don't maintain infrastructure (like irrigation)
-opium trade revived
-formed treaties with foreign countries; threatened sovereignty
Some military leaders put on trial
Prince Asaka not put on trial; granted immunity by Allies
1937–1938 Nanking Massacre
Printed in 1997; brought to forefront atrocities committed by the Imperial Japanese Army
controversial; some say her book is descriptive, but her reasoning as to why Japanese committed atrocities is flawed
China claims over 300,000 killed; Japan says 40,000-200,000
Some Japanese deny it ever happened
Fascism had no clearly defined theory or program, however, most shared some ideas:
Fascists believed that nations must struggle, and peaceful states were doomed to be conquered
Loyalty to authoritarian leader who brought order to state; loyalty to leader = loyalty to the state
Uniforms or shirts of a certain color; special salutes, war cries; mass rallies
Fascism resembles Communism in that both:
Ruled by dictators from a single party
Denied individual rights
The state is supreme
Fascism differs from Communism
No classless society; each class had its place and function
Fascist parties were made up of aristocrats and industrialists, war veterans, and the lower middle class
Fascists were nationalists; Communists were internationalists
Hitler created a ministry of culture to supervise press, broadcasting, literature, drama, music, painting and film; and used them to shape public opinion
Nuremberg Laws
: deprived Jews of German citizenship; no marriage b/w Jews & non-Jewish Germans
Night of Broken Glass): November 9 & 10, 1938, Nazi mobs destroyed 7,500 Jewish-owned shops and businesses, burned 275 synagogues, and beat Jews on the streets and in their homes.
-Dictators promised easy answers
-By 1935, only one democracy remained in eastern Europe (Czechoslovakia)
-Many dictators were voted into power by people willing to sacrifice their freedom out of economic distress
The World Drifts Toward WWII
By the mid-1930s, it was clear the world’s powerful countries (except the communist Soviet Union) were either democratic or fascist. The League of Nations had no forces. The Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931 was the League’s first of many challenges and it did very little to meet the challenges

-Locarno Pact (1925)-France would protect Czechoslovakia from Germany if invaded
-Poles saw this agreement as "Let Germany attack the east as long as they don't attack the west" & didn't believe France would protect them
Mein Kampf excerpts

How did Hitler gain power? con't
-Hindenburg dies in 1934
-Office of president merged with chancellor
-No one really protests Hitler's increase of power
-Hitler turns Germany into a totalitarian state
-SS (Schutzstaffel) protection squad & Gestapo (secret police)
kills off rivals for power
no strikes or labor unions; gov't in control
gov't started projects; gave people jobs
unemployment dropped
Nanking Safety Zone
-guarded by Westerners
-protected Chinese civilians within hospitals, embassies, colleges
Italy invades Ethiopia
German general
PM Neville Chamberlain
Policy of appeasement
"I believe it is peace for our time"
warning: graphic photos
A Chinese man who was initially used for a Japanese officer's sword practice & later as an infantryman's bayonet practice.
General Matsui Iwane (of Japan) as he enters Nanking after
taking it over
Executions of Chinese
Destruction from fighting in Nanking
5 Chinese prisoners being buried alive by Japanese. These pictures
were taken by a Japanese soldier, smuggled out by a Chinese film
shop employee, given to W.A. Farmer & published in the American magazine Look
Murder became a sport for the Japanese army.
The Japanese media covered the army's killing contests near Nanking
Two sublieutenants went on beheading sprees to see who could kill 100 men first. The Japan Advertiser (newspaper) ran their picture with the headline, "Contest to Kill 1st 100 Chinese with Sword Extended When Both Fighters Exceed Mark-Mukai Scores 106 and Noda 105"
John Rabe
Good or bad guy?
Hitler's 1st conquests
Rhineland (1936), Austria (1938), & Sudetenland (1938)
Hitler figures that other countries would not stop him since they were afraid of war
6 months later, i
n early 1939, Hitler broke the agreement by taking the rest of Czechoslovakia
Mussolini seizes Albania
Hitler demands that Poland return the former German port of Danzing
Poles refuse; ask Britain & France for help
Britain & France ask the Soviet Union to help them
Soviet Union instead signs a Non-Aggression Pact (will not attack each other) with Germany in Aug. 1939
Member of the British Parliament
-In 1937, both groups agreed to work together in an attempt to fight off the Japanese
-Communists led guerilla movements against Japanese
-won loyalty of people
-Nationalists & Communists resume fighting each other 1946-1949
-U.S. supported Nationalists
-As China's economy collapsed, people turned to the Communists
-Red Army wins; Chairman Mao declares the People's Republic of China
-Nationalists retreat to Taiwan
-studied law in London, moved to S. Africa in 1893 (lived there for 25 years)
-fought racial discrimination with tolerance & non-violence
-came back in India in 1915; changes INC to nationalist group
-Mahatma-"great soul"
-no castes, helped "untouchables"
-civil disobedience in 1920s-1930s
-boycott British textiles & salt
-non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922) & Civil Disobedience Movement (1930)
-still had violence so British crack down
-political compromise offered by British

Events leading up to WWII activity
Paris Peace conference-Japan can stay in China
-May 4th movement-Chinese students protest Japanese influence
-Communism appeals to Chinese since the U.S. & Europe don't seem to care about China
-Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 1921
-led by former librarian assistant Mao Zedong; emerges as leader after the Long March
-said peasants were the foundation of the revolution, not urban workers (as Marx/Lenin said)
-Maoism (Marxist-Leninism)
-Why peasants?
Three Principles of the People
-democratic republic, reunification of nation, no privileges for foreigners, economic development
-wanted to bring entire country under control of the Nationalist People's Party (
-Initially works with the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
-alliance of convenience
-Soviets assist both groups
Sun Yatsen dies 1925; General Jiang Jieshi takes his place
-not as interested in social revolutions; launches Northern Expedition
-hoped to unify nation under Guomindang rule
-Turns on CCP; declares Guomindang the official gov't
-Pushes CCP into SE China during the Long March 1934-35

-China was not greatly affected by the Great Depression
-still focused on domestic markets, self-reliant
-BUT did have problems in the 1930s
1. warlords
2. threat of communist revolution from SE China
3. Japanese aggression
The Long March
-Oct. 1934-1935
-communists (Red Army) fled SE China b/c of Guomindang aggression
-6,215 miles
-inspired Chinese to join CCP

Indian nationalism
-RR connects, few British, educated Indian middle class
-Indian National Congress (INC)-elite
-supports Britain in WWI, but 14 Point Plan+Lenin+food shortages lead to nationalism
-Gov't of India Act
-like a self-government state, but still with British oversight (executive)
-est. autonomous legislative bodies
-but didn't work
-people didn't work together
-Muslims (tenant farmers) felt exploited by Hindus (landlords); thought Hindus would not include them in legislature
-makes national unification difficult
Japan in the 1920s and 30s
-Now considered to be a world power; joined League of Nations
-agreed to leave the Shandong province in China
-no war, no longer focused on 21 Demands/territorial ambitions
-gained more trade in Asia b/c of WWI since Europe was busy with the war
-sold munitions to Europe
-but still had economic issues
-recessions, inflation, labor unrest, political corruption, xenophobia, assassinations
-Int'l industrialists-capitalists (trade with other countries) vs. militant/self-sufficiency (do it on our own & dominate trade in East Asia)
-China becomes unified; threat to Japan's influence in Manchuria
-Manchuria was once a territory ruled by Japan
-Japan still had troops there, transit rights, economic interests
Mukden Incident
-Japan wants to assert its control so Japanese troops deliberately blow up the Japanese-built South Manchuria Railway, but accuse the Chinese of it (1931)
-Manchuria basically is absorbed into the Japanese empire
-Jiang Jieshi complains to the League of Nations
-Japan leave the league
-African participation in WWI
1. volunteer 2. be supplied by chiefs through levies 3. conscription
-now told to kill white people (enemy) rather than revere them
-whites leave to fight in war; opportunity to revolt

B/c of the 14 Point Plan & war participation...
-African countries thought they would rule themselves, but instead were exploited
-Great Depression hurt Africa
-too focused on exports; European-controlled
-Taxes placed on Africans pushed them into cash crop labor
-men migrated to work in mines; women & children left behind to fend for themselves
-Compulsory labor-"We have stolen his land. Now we must steal his limbs."

African elites study in west (lawyers, doctors, gov't workers)
-call for nationalism
-bring ALL Africans together despite their differences
-"Back to Africa movement"
-mostly U.S./Caribbean

Latin America & Neocolonialism
-After WWI, U.S. realizes it needs Latin Am. in case of future wars, exports, & immigrants
-indirect control by the U.S./Britain through economic means
-some military & political interference
-nationalism motivated by Enlightenment & Marxism
-Latin America's economy isn't diverse; mostly agricultural
-Great Depression hurts economies
-farmers try to limit supply to raise prices
-tariffs, increase manufacturing to diversify

-Maricitegui-Peruvian socialists
-est. Socialist Party of Peru in 1928
-helped poor
-exiled to Europe b/c criticism

-Popular American Revolutionary Alliance (APRA)
-fought for indigenous rights; anti-imperialistic
-not communist; more capitalistic

Diego Rivera
-Mexican communist
-frescoes & murals
-supported indigenous people
Man at the Crossroads

-The Arsenal

Monroe Doctrine
-Pres. Monroe said U.S. is a protector of the Americas (1823)
Roosevelt Corollary
(added in 1904)-U.S. can intervene in others nations' affairs if economic interests at stake
-eventually renounced Monroe Doctrine in 1933
-Instead U.S. President Taft: "Money for bullets."
-peaceful commerce over military intervention
Good Neighbor Policy (FDR)
$ diplomacy
-U.S. provides military training for country
-cheaper than putting U.S. military there

Nicaragua: An example of neocolonialism
-in 1912, U.S. occupied Nicaragua in Banana Wars
-1920s-civil war
-U.S. Marines trains Nicaraguan National Guard
-Nationalist general Sardino fights to keep U.S. Marines out of Nicaragua
-killed by National Guard officers in 1934
-seen as a martyr who fought imperialism
-U.S. holds elections, puts Somoza Garcia in charge of the Nicaraguan National Guard; his family eventually takes over, builds a fortune, & rules Nicaragua until 1979

“I spent 33 years and four months in active military service and during that period
I spent most of my time as a high class muscle man for Big Business, for Wall Street and the bankers. In short, I was a racketeer, a gangster for capitalism. I helped make Mexico and especially Tampico safe for American oil interests in 1914. I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys to collect revenues in. I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefit of Wall Street. I helped purify Nicaragua for the International Banking House of Brown Brothers in 1902-1912. I brought light to the Dominican Republic for the American sugar interests in 1916. I helped make Honduras right for the American fruit companies in 1903. In China in 1927 I helped see to it that Standard Oil went on its way unmolested. Looking back on it, I might have given Al Capone a few hints. The best he could do was to operate his racket in three districts. I operated on three continents.”

-Smedly Butler (officer in the Marines)
War is a Racket

Agree or Disagree: The rise of the Communist Party in China is completely understandable given the actions of Nationalist leader Jiang Jieshi.
Agree or Disagree: A unified India should have a legislature where at least 1/3 of the representatives are Muslim. –Muhammad Ali Jinnah presented this idea at the Round Table Conference in London (1930-1932)
Agree or Disagree: Colonial powers were justified in taxing Africans in order to build infrastructure and provide government services like education.
Agree or Disagree: All blacks, not just African-Americans and Afro-Caribbean intellectuals, should have embraced Marcus Garvey’s “Back to Africa” movement.
Agree or Disagree: The Monroe Doctrine and dollar diplomacy were better than using military intervention in Latin America by the United States.
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