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Dynamics

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Penny Blue

on 1 February 2018

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Transcript of Dynamics

Dynamics - The Study of Forces and Motion
Centripetal Force
Any force applied to an object toward the center of a curved or circular path
Depends on the radius of the curve or circular path, the velocity of the object around the curve or circular path, and the mass of the object
Newton's 3rd Law of Motion
States: For ever action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Newton's 2nd Law of Motion
States: The acceleration of an object is in the direction of the net force acting on the object, directly proportional to the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object
Doubling the net force on an object will double the acceleration
Doubling the mass of the object will decrease the acceleration by 2
Force of Gravity
Force of attraction between to objects of mass
On Earth, the force of gravity depends on the mass of the object and the acceleration due to gravity on Earth
Outside Earth's influences, the force of gravity depends on the universal gravity constant, the mass of the objects attracting, and the distance between them
Newton's 1st Law of Motion
States: Objects at rest remain at rest, and objects in motion remain in motion with a constant velocity (speed and direction),
unless a net force
(outside) force acts on it.
Equilibrium
When the forces acting on an object are balanced
Object's motion will not change.
Net force on the object = 0
No Equilibrium
When the forces acting on an object are unbalance
Object's motion will change (acceleration)
Net force on the object will not equal zero
When two objects interact, the force object 1 exerts on object 2 is equal to the magnitude of the force object 2 exerts on objece 1, but opposite in direction.
These forces do not cancel out because they are on different objects.
The motion of the objects may not be equal because of all the other forces acting each individual object

The force of the cannon on the clown is equal to the force of the clown on the cannon
The acceleration of the clown is greater than the acceleration of the cannon because the cannon has more mass (inertia) than the clown
Inertia and Mass
Inertia - The tendency of an object to resist changes in motion.
All objects resist changing their motion; therefore, all object have inertia
The amount of inertia depends on the mass (amount of matter) of the object.
More mass = More inertia = More resistance to change motion
Field Forces
Interactions that occur over a distance due to some type of field. Thus, the objects do not have to be in direct contact.
Examples: Gravity and Electromagnetic Force
Contact Forces
Interactions that occur when the objects are in direct contact with each other
Examples: Force of kick, Friction, etc.
Interaction between objects
Usually a push or a pull
Classified as either contact forces or field forces
Force
Resistance Forces
Forces that oppose the motion of an object
Always acts in the opposite direction of the motion
Contact force that results from the particles of the two objects surfaces sticking together.
Always opposes motion (in the opposite direction of the motion of the object) Always parallel to surface
Two types of friction: Kinetic Friction and Static Friction
Static Friction is always greater than Kinetic Friction
Friction
Drag
Force of fluid particles colliding with surface of the object
Like friction, drag opposes motion
Drag increases as the speed of the object increases
One of the four forces associated with flight
Type of drag produced when particles of air collide with the surface of a moving object.
Air Resistance
Support Forces
Forces that balance dynamic forces to prevent or reduce movement
Contact pulling force between objects by a rope, string, cable, etc
Tension
Contact force of a surface pushing perpendicular on the object
Normal Force
Contact force resulting from increased air pressure under the object pushing upward (usually) on the object
One of the four forces associated with flight
Lift
Pushing or squeezing force that acts on an object or structure
Forces that act on an object to cause a change in motion
Dynamic Forces
Compression
Bending
Shear
Torsion
A twisting of an object due to a force
Pushing or pulling force perpendicular to surface of object of the structure resulting in a tearing
Pushing or pulling force that results in deformation or deflecting a portion of the structure or object
Thrust
Gravity (or Weight)
Forward pushing force due to an engine, motor, or some other type of technology
One of the four forces associated with flight
Attractive (pulling) field force between objects.
Depends on the mass of the objects and how far apart they are
On Earth, the force of gravity is called weight.
One of the four forces associated with flight
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