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Organized Crime in China
Transcript of Organized Crime in China
Tanner Bibliography THANK YOU! Origins
The influence of organized crime in China is believed to have risen as the economy slowed down. Current Activity “Between 1945 and 2000, more than ???,??? reported Triad members have been arrested for a variety of crimes. “ International Prosectution and Future China Cracks Down On Organized Crime Questions? Brandon
! Modern day crime varies in severity Extortion
Drugs and Pornography Kidnappings in the 90s two of Hong Kong’s richest tycoons—
Walter Kwok and Victor Li Question! Pol Officers Prisoners First level Dealers Lam, Willy Wo-Lap. "China corruption linked to triads." CNN World. 2012 Cable News Network. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc., 10 Mar 2012. Web. 18 Sep 2012. <http://articles.cnn.com/2002-03-10/world/china.npclaw_1_triad-corruption-cases-npc?_s=PM:asiapcf>. Hays, Jeffrey. "TRIADS AND ORGANIZED CRIME IN CHINA." FACTS AND DETAILS. New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, National Geographic, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, Lonely Planet Guides, Compton’s Encyclopedia, Apr 2012. Web. 18 Sep 2012. <http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=300>. Pics From A Chinese Gangster's Cellphone. 2012. Photograph. OMG SoysauceWeb. 18 Sep 2012. <http://www.omgsoysauce.com/17684/pics-from-a-chinese-gangsters-cellphone-22-pics/>. "In March 2007, 10 members of a police-run gang in Inner Mongolia were sentenced to up to 20 years in prison for robbery, rape, gambling and bribery" "After a massive anti-crime campaign in 1998, 90 percent of 720 inmates at Central Prison were Triad members." "...former Governor of Yunnan Province, Li Jiating, who reportedly took bribes worth more than 1 million yuan ($120,000)." - CNN 2002
son of Li Jiating Government officials "ransom of $210 million" Triads (cont.) Structure Most active in Shanghai, Tianjin, Shenyang, Guangzhou, and Hong Kong On the mainland these organizations are known as “Black Societies” or more recently refered to as the “Triad” in western terms. Many Westerners believe that organized crime is believed to be held between 3 major Crime Families
However, the organized crime world in China is made up of hundreds of groups, with 50 different in Hong Kong alone, each with individual rituals, markings, and territory.
A large number of the participants consist of the migrant floating population in china. Triads The Triads are tribal-like organizations that follow a strict Confucian code of ethics in which elders are respected. Romanticized in Asian films, the Triads have secret signs, exotic code names, and secret tattoos. Symbols are very important. A whole range of messages can be conveyed through glances and the way a cigarette is offered. 1000 BCE 2000 0 CE Dates back to 1000 BC with the monks (not one particular city) Peasants were preyed upon by leaders. Formed "self help" groups 19th 17th 18th Worked with foreign trades to bring opium into the country worked as secret societies against the Qing Dynasty Developed out of the Hung Society Thrived in the 1920s, '30s, and '40s “organizations with characteristics of a criminal syndicate” judicial interpretation of the Supreme People's Court: Structure (cont.) 1. Is a highly structured organization with a leadership, basically stable membership, and relatively strict discipline
2. They pursues economic benefit through illegal activities and possesses a certain economic strength.
3. It seeks to shield itself through bribes and threats.
4. Is is criminal activities bring serious harm to economic and social order. “
[Source: Zhou Litai, journalist Wu Wei, Beijing News, Danwei.org, October 18, 2009] (http://www.themakeupgallery.info/various/tattoo/rushhour3.htm) Numbers involved risen from 100,000 in 1986 to 1.5 million in the new century Admin Staff. "The Worldâs Top 5 Criminal Tattoos." The World's Top 5 Criminal Tattoos. Www.wackyowl.com, 11 Jan. 2010. Web. 13 Sept. 2012. <http://www.wackyowl.com/world-top-5-criminal-tattoos/>.
Antony, Robert J. "The Origins of the Tiandihui: The Chinese Triads in Legend and History." China Review International 2.1 (1995): 194-97.
Boggess, Justin. "The Traditional Triad Structure." Filmpiracy - The Traditional Triad Structure. Instituite for Intelligence Studies Mercyhurst College, 2012. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. <http://filmpiracy.wikispaces.com/The Traditional Triad Structure>.
. "Chinese Video & DVD Â» Movies." Shanghai Triad (DVD). China Sprout, 1999. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. <http://www.chinasprout.com/shop/VCV027>.
Hays, Jeffery. "Facts and Details." TRIADS AND ORGANIZED CRIME IN CHINA. Factsanddetails.com, 2008. Web. 13 Sept. 2012. <http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=300>.
Illuminated Lantern. "The Illuminated Lantern: Triads." The Illuminated Lantern: Triads. The Illuminated Latern. Web. 13 Sept. 2012. <http://www.illuminatedlantern.com/cinema/archives/triads.php>.
Spicuzza, Mary. "Enter the Dragon Head." SF Weekly News. 01 Aug. 2007. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. <http://www.sfweekly.com/2007-08-01/news/enter-the-dragon-head/full>.
Wei, Wu, and Zhou Litai. "Organizations with Characteristics of Criminal Syndicate." Danwei. Beijing News, 18 Oct. 2009. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. <http://www.Danwei.org/>. Bolz, Jennifer. Chinese Organized Crime and Illegal Alien Trafficking: Humans as a Commodity. Asian Affairs, Vol. 22, No. 3 (Fall, 1995), pp. 147-158. http://www.jstor.org/stable/30172249 Accessed: 09/09/2012 14:52 100,000 chinese aliens are smuggled into America each year. The name "triad" was coined by British authorities in Hong Kong as a reference to the triangular shape of the Chinese character for "secret society." Earnings from the illegal immigrant trade is estimated to total $3.2 billion per year
Punishable in the United States by a maximum sentence of only five years in jail
Yet most who are convicted under current laws are sentenced to less than six months heaven, earth, and man Foriegn name If an immigrant cannot pay the local triad organization, then he or she may either be:
forced to work in underground slave-labor factories called "sweat-shops"
coerced into performing illegal activities, such as drug or currency trafficking
targeted for execution.
Their family in China can be in danger. The groups most active in the United States are the Sun Yee On, with branches in New York, Miami, San Francisco, and Los Angeles; The flow of humans from China is not likely to abate in the near future Trocki, Carl A. "Opium and the Beginnings of Chinese Capitalism in Southeast Asia." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. (2002). http://www.jstor.org.libweb.lib.utsa.edu/stable/view/20072417?&Search=yes&searchText=triads&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3Dchinese%2Btriads%26acc%3Doff%26wc%3Don The government's largest anti-organized crime prosecution in a half-century is currently under way.
Already, six people have been sentenced to death. (Defendants face sentencing for a variety of charges linked to organized crime, including murder and extortion, during a trial in southwest China's Chongqing municipality on Oct. 21st 2009) Li Qiang (the alleged crime boss)
Nine offenses including: running a criminal enterprise, bribing officials and organizing a strike by Chongqing taxi Kuhn, Anthony, writ. "China Cracks Down On Organized Crime." All Things Considered. National Public Radio: 26 Oct 2009. Web. 18 Sep 2012. <http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=114179309>. Traver, Harold. "CONTROLLING TRIADS AND ORGANIZED CRIME IN HONG KONG." Hong Kong Journal. (2005): n. page. Web. 18 Sep. 2012. <http://www.hkjournal.org/archive/2009_summer/1.htm>. Supressing Triads
The 1920 Societies Ordinance
Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC)
Organized and Serious Crimes Ordinance 1994
Witness Protection Ordinance 2000 *3% of criminal offenses in the past decade are triad related* Brandon Mayo Issac Jenoa Tanner