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Copy of The Presidency of George Washington

SCOS 1.01 1.03
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Tony Magnon

on 17 October 2016

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Transcript of Copy of The Presidency of George Washington

The Presidency of George Washington
Background Info
Commander in the French and Indian War
General of American Continental forces during the American Revolution
Presided over the Constitutional Convention
Elected first president of the United States
"I walk on untrodden ground. There is scarcely any part of my conduct which may not hereafter be drawn into precedent.
Washington Organizes
As the chief executive, Washington's principal task was to organize new departments in the Executive (law-enforcing) branch.
Washington formed a cabinet of four principal advisers:
Thomas Jefferson--Secretary of State
Alexander Hamilton--Secretary of Treasury
Henry Knox--Secretary of War
Edmund Randolph--Attorney General
Domestic Problems--Finances
One of the most pressing problems facing the nation was the government's financial difficulties

Alexander Hamilton's Plan:
Pay back state war debts
Create tariffs and excise taxes
Whiskey tax
Created the national bank
Foreign Policy Achievements
The Jay Treaty (1794)
Chief Justice John Jay
The British agreed to evacuate their posts on the Western frontier
Pinckney Treaty (1795)
Opened up the lower Mississippi river and New Orleans to American trade
Moved Spanish Florida's northern boundary to the 31st parallel
Washington Organizes
Washington also organized the Judicial branch

The Judiciary Act of 1789
Created the Supreme Court
13 District Courts
3 Court of Appeals
Who could vote?
White landowning males

Washington's Farewell Address
Warned that US should:
Avoid political parties
Remain Neutral
Stay out of permanent alliances

Tariffs would…
encourage the growth of American industry (buy American-made).
raise money for the federal government.

Hamilton’s Financial Plan

Pay off the war debt to develop the trust of other nations for trade.
Raise the federal government’s revenues through tariffs and taxes.
TARIFFS – a tax on imported goods.

Hamilton’s Financial Plan

The Constitution allows Congress to create departments to help the President – the Cabinet.
The first Presidential Cabinet had four departments:

Establishment of the
Presidential Cabinet

Washington establishes many governmental precedents.
PRCEDENT: an example that would become a standard practice.

George Washington’s Presidency

Established the precedent of only a two-term presidency, which becomes the 22nd Amendment in 1951.

Washington Retires

Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794) the American army defeats a confederation of Indians over tension in the Northwest Territory.
Treaty of Greenville (1795) 12 tribes cede much of present-day Ohio and Indiana to the U.S. government.

Major Events During
Washington’s Presidency

STRICT CONSTRUCTION: only what the Constitution clearly states – favored by Jefferson and Madison.
LOOSE CONSTRUCTION: the Constitution should be flexible to meet the needs of the country (Elastic Clause) – favored by Hamilton and Adams.
Jefferson and Hamilton argue these points on the creation of the National Bank.

Debate on Interpretation
of the Constitution

The First Presidential Cabinet

Secretary of the Treasury (Alexander Hamilton) to manage the government’s money.

The First Presidential Cabinet

Secretary of State (Thomas Jefferson) oversee the relations between the U.S. and other countries.

Federal Judiciary Act of 1789: passed by Congress.
Created an independent federal court system with the Supreme Court and lower level courts.

Establishment of the
Court System

GEORGE WASHINGTON
1789-1797

Pinckney’s Treaty (1795) Spain gave the Americans the right to freely travel on the Mississippi River and use the port of New Orleans.

Major Events During
Washington’s Presidency

The French Revolution (1789-1793) the French people overthrow the French monarchy by executing King Louis XVI.
Neutrality – the U.S. would not side with any European country in wartime.

Major Events During
Washington’s Presidency

The Whiskey Rebellion (1794) PA farmers refused to pay the tax until the American army enforces it. This upholds the power of the new federal government.

Major Events During
Washington’s Presidency

Create a NATIONAL BANK:
safe place to keep the government’s money.
can make loans to businesses.
would issue paper currency.
strengthen the federal government.

Hamilton’s Financial Plan

NOTE: Alexander Hamilton believed that the federal government should be stronger than the state governments.

Hamilton’s Financial Plan

The First Presidential Cabinet

Attorney General (Edmond Randolph) to advise the government on legal matters.

Secretary of War (Henry Knox) oversee the nation’s defenses.

The First Presidential Cabinet

The U.S. Supreme Court is to have a Chief Justice and five associate justices. Currently we have 9 total justices.
Washington appoints John Jay as Chief Justice.

April 30, 1789 Washington (Virginia) is inaugurated (sworn in) as President.
John Adams (Mass.) becomes the Vice-President.

George Washington’s Presidency

Debate on Interpretation
of the Constitution

Hamilton’s Financial Plan

Major Events During
Washington’s Presidency -
Create a NATIONAL BANK: A safe place to
keep the government’s money.
Can make loans to businesses.
Would issue paper currency.
Strengthen the federal government.

Hamilton’s Financial Plan

Hamilton’s Financial Plan

The First Presidential Cabinet

Establishment of the
Presidential Cabinet

George Washington’s Presidency

GEORGE WASHINGTON
1789-1797

Washington Retires

Major Events During
Washington’s Presidency

Major Events During
Washington’s Presidency

Major Events During
Washington’s Presidency

The First Presidential Cabinet

The First Presidential Cabinet

Establishment of the
Court System

George Washington’s Presidency

On April 30th, 1789, Washington (Virginia) sworn in as President. John Adams becomes Vice-President (Mass.)
Washington creates many governmental precedents.

The term means an example that would become a standard practice.

Federal Judiciary Act of 1789 passed by Congress. Created an independent federal court system with the Supreme Court and lower federal courts being established.
The Supreme Court was to have a Chief Justice and five associate justices. Washington appoints John Jay as the first Chief Justice. How many justices do we have today?
The Constitution allows congress to create departments to help the President - the Cabinet.The first presidential cabinet had four departments.
Secretary of War ( Henry Knox) oversees the nation's defense.
Secretary of the Treasury (Alexander Hamilton) will manage the government's money
Attorney General (Edmond Randolph) to advise the government on legal matters.
Hamilton believed that the federal government should be stronger than the state governments.
Pay off the war debt to develop the trust of other nations for trade. Increase the federal government's revenues through tariffs and taxes.
Tariffs would encourage the growth of American industry (buy American-made). Raises money for the federal government.
Strict Construction
: only what the Constitution clearly states - favored by Jefferson and Madison.
Loose Construction
- the Constitution should be flexible enough to meet the needs of the country (Elastic Clause). - favored by Hamilton and Adams. The debate over the National Bank is argued on these two interpretations
Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794). The American army defeats a confederation of Indians over disputes in the Northwest Territory. Treaty of Greenville (1795) cedes much of present-day Ohio and Indiana to the U.S. government.
Whiskey Rebellion (1794). Pennsylvania farmers refuse to pay the tax until the American army enforces it. This upholds the power of the new federal government.
The French Revolution (1789-1793) - the French people overthrow the French monarchy by executing King Louis XVI. The U.S. remains neutral - would not side with any European country in wartime.
Pickney's Treaty (1795) Spain gave the United States the right to freely travel on the Mississippi River and use the Port of New Orleans
Established the precedent of only a two-term presidency, which became the 22nd Amendment in 1951.
The First Presidential Cabinet
Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson will manage our country's foreign affairs
Full transcript