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Transcript of French Expansion
France in Africa
France controlled Algeria after defeating the Barbary Corsairs in the early 1800s.
France (like Britain) was also looking to increase it's territorial holdings, find a market for manufactured goods, find resources, and challenge British domination.
France had undergone a century of turmoil by the time of the Scramble and was eager to show off her nationalism and industrialisation
Since West Africa had seen the rise and fall of many kingdoms and empires there was a lot of rivalry.
Most of the Africans in the region refused to work with each other to resist the French.
Some even worked with the French in conquering their rivals.
Areas of Interest in Africa
France was most active in West and North Africa.
Between 1879 and 1881 France began an aggressive policy of colonisation in West Africa.
Why: West Africa had traditionally been a very wealthy area, with many empires and kingdoms.
French West Africa
The following colonies made up French West Africa:
French Sudan (Mali)
Upper Volta (Burkino Faso)
The capital was in Dakar, Senegal.
The French were good at creating treaties with local rulers
The chiefs thought that the treaties were longterm and binding.
The French saw the treaties as temporary.
France extended control over the region by making Tunisia a protectorate in 1881.
Colonel Parfait-Louis Monteil travelled from Senegal to Lake Chad between 1890-1892
Signed treaties with rulers and proclaiming the region French or allied with France.
The Voulet-Chanoine Mission was sent out in 1898 to conquer the Chad Basin
Unify all French territory in West Africa.
The mission was heavily cirticised because of its ruthlessness.
France: colonising Africa from West-East.
Britain: colonising African from North-South.
This created problems:
The most famous one was the Fashoda Incident, in the Sudan.
France and Britain both wanted to control the area.
Almost fought a war over it.
Both sent troops in to try take over.
France backed down, and the long term effects led to the Entente Cordiale
At the Berlin Coference France used several treaties to establish claims to the territory north of the lower Congo.
By the 1890s France had established colonies in Gabon, Congo, and the Central African Republic