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The Learning Process

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by

Nicci Tatarek

on 4 December 2013

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Transcript of The Learning Process

The Learning Process
The History
of Learning
Current
Learning Theories
THINKER
BRAIN RESERACH
THINKER THINKER
BRAIN BASED
LEARNING THEORIES
THINKER THINKERT
Meaningful learning experiences
Opportunities for failure with repeated opportunities for success
Curiosity is encouraged
Cognitivism in the Classroom
CLASSROOM APPLICATIONS:
Developmental Stages &
Cognitive Structures
Learning is based on cognitive structures depending of mental maturity of learner

4 Stages of Development
Sensorimotor

0 - 2yrs
Preoperational 2 - 7yrs
Concrete Operations 7 - 12yrs
Formal Operations 12 – 15yrs
Perceivers: Concrete or abstract learners.
Concrete- learn from direct experience
Abstract- learn for indirect experiences

Processors: Active or passive learners
Active- need to use information immediately
Passive- need to process information before using
LEARNING STYLES
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
Ways people best understand the world around them & demonstrate their intellectual abilities.
Verbal-Linguistic
Logical-Mathematical
Visual-Spatial
Body-Kinesthetic
Musical-Rhythmic
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Naturalistic
The Anatomy & Physiology of the Brain
Weight: 3lbs
Not the largest organ, but it is the body's greediest
Uses 10% of body’s oxygen and 25% of energy
“Learning is the
Act of Making
New Connections”
More Sensory Connections Made
Increases Learning Opportunities
More Practice Given
Strong Connections
Stronger Connections
Strong Memory
Neuroscience
is facilitating a shift
in focus
from teaching
to
LEARNING!!
"Today, educated people need to retrieve & process information & evaluate what information is valuable and what it not" (BB, 2006).
SCHOOL WORLD
Emphasis on Individual Work
Emphasis on Mental Work
Abstract Reasoning is Emphasized
REAL WORLD
Emphasis on Collabartive Work
Emphasis on Use of Tools
Contextualized Reasoning is Emphasized
The ability to extend what has been learned in one context to new contexts.
Depends of degree of understanding and mastery
“School should be less about preparation for life and more like life itself” -Dewey J.
TRANSFER OF LEARNING
METACOGNITION & FEEDBACK:
Learner’s ability to predict and monitor their performance
Setting goals, selecting appropriate strategies, and evaluating thier of progress




Improves students’ ability to transfer learning because it helps students “become more aware of themselves as learners” (BB)
Feedback reduces student uncertainty and reduces stress (BB, 2006)
"THINKING ABOUT THINKING"
MEMORY:
Is the result of the learning process that involves changes in our collection of knowledge & skills
Memory is reconstructed not collected
SENSORY MEMORY
SHORT-TERM MEMORY
LONG-TERM MEMORY
Mere repetition does not store information for very long

Adding meaning strengthens memory because it becomes associatated with embedded memories
MOTIVATION:
Learner’s desire or intent to learn
Intrinsic Internal motivation to learn
Extrinsic External motivation to learn
STRATEGIES TO INCREASE INTRINSIC MOTIVATION

Elimination of threats
Daily goal setting with choices
Positive reinforcement of students’ beliefs about themselves and their learning
Management of student emotions
Frequent feedback
Key Factors of Intrinsic Motivation
Novelty
Emotions
Past/Preset/Future
A teacher is one who makes himself
progressively unnecessary.
~Thomas Carruthers

References:
Beers, B. (2006). Learning-driven schools: A practical guide for teachers and principals. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision of Curriculum and Development.

Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer.). (2010A). Understanding the Brain. [Video webcast]. Retrieved from http://sylvan.live.ecollege.com.

Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer.). (2010B). Brain Research and Learning. [Video webcast]. Retrieved from http://sylvan.live.ecollege.com.
BEHAVIORISM:

Study of observable behaviors rather than mental activities.
Suggested conditioning; providing a reward or punishment in response to certain behaviors, as a means to increase learning.

Classical Conditioning Reflexes (Pavlov’s Dogs)

Operant Conditioning Feedback/Reinforcement
(Skinner’s Pigeon Box)
Based on Rewards & Punishments
SOCIAL COGNITION
Learning depends on the cultural environment of the learner

Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development

Learning occurs inbetween what a learner can do and what a learner can accomplish with guidance.
THIS IS WHERE
LEARNING
HAPPENS!!!
Social Learning Theory

Observational Learning
Learning occurs through observing others in a social context, through interaction of cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences.

4 Conditions must be present for learning to occur
Attention
Retention
Motor Reproduction
Motivation
Social Learning Theory in the Classroom
Collaborative learning & group work
Modeling responses & expectations
Opportunities to observe experts in action
Behaviorism in the Classroom
Rewards and punishments
Responsibility for student learning rests squarely with the teacher
Lecture-based, highly structured

Limitations of Behaviorism
Does not account for processes taking place in the mind that cannot be observed
Does not explain how behavior changes
Does not explain how new learning occurs in the absence of reward and punishments
NEUROSCIENCE: BRAIN RESEARCH
The brain is sculpted through
experience (neuroplasticity)

The brain seeks meaningful patterns
Emotions are the catalyst for learning
FRONTAL LOBE- Higher Level Thinking & Language
OCCIPITAL LOBE- Vision
TEMPORAL LOBE- Hearing
PARIETAL LOBE- Integrates Sensory Information
4 LOBES OF THE BRAIN
CLASSROOM APPLICATIONS:
Diversified Avenues to Learning
Diversified Curriculum, Instruction & Assessment
Student-Centered Learning Environment
Variety is the

S
P
I
C
E
of...
Living
&
LEARNING
Full transcript