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C. 13, 14, & 17 Middle Ages, Renaissance, & Reformation

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Ryan Garnett

on 22 January 2014

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Transcript of C. 13, 14, & 17 Middle Ages, Renaissance, & Reformation

C. 13 & 14 Middle Ages & Crusades
Objective 1: Describe the 5 effects of Germanic Invasions on Europe (End of Roman Empire)
Destruction of Cities
Economic & administrative (govt.) centers were gone
Objective 2: Discuss Feudalism. Be sure to include its purpose, hierarchy, manor life, and impact.
Objective 3: Define Crusade. Explain the impact of the Crusades on the future of the world. Be specific.
**The Church provided stability, order, unity, and hope during a time of political turmoil and harsh conditions**
Objective 5: Using evidence from the painting/sculpture/excerpt, explain why this work is demonstrative of the Renaissance. Identify evidence depicting the Greek idea of “focus on the individual.” Define Renaissance in the introduction and conclude with the major impact of the Renaissance.

Renaissance - "Re-birth." Re-birth of Greek and Roman teachings....(focus on the individual's ability to reason and better him/herself)
Objective 6: Describe the causes, events, and effects of the Protestant Reformation and its effects on the world.
Barbarians
Huns, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Anglos, Saxons, Visigoths
• Partner Speech/Storytelling, 3’ minimum, 5' max; note cards, NO reading ("note" cards, not "reading" cards). No Prezi/Powerpoint, but be visual. Sources required in Works Cited, MLA Format
o Origins/Short History
o Leader(s)
o Battle Weapons/Tactics
o Key Battle(s)
Scoring
Content 8 pts
2 pts each
Creativity 10 pts
9-10 NO reading, props/dress, drawings, etc. Well-Spoken, Organized, Good Flow, Eye Contact
7-8 Very little reading; some effort is made towards aesthetics; Somewhat well spoken, organized and little effort is made towards flow & eye contact
Works Cited 10 pts
Due Tuesday, 12/10; BE EFFICIENT WITH YOUR TIME

System of Protection...Government System
Purpose: Collapse of Rome = Collapse of Government = Collapse of Protection
Feudal Contract: Kings make agreements w/ warrior leaders...
King provides land, warriors provide protection/food...
FEUDALISM
System of Money...Economic System
Purpose: Cities Destroyed = No Trade System = No Money
Manorialism
1. ___________ of Cities

2. ___________ of Trade

3. ___________ of Learning

4. ___________ of Population

5. ___________ of Language
Objective 1 Quiz: Describe the 5 Effects of Germanic Invasions on Europe

Disruption of Trade
Economic centers (cities) were destroyed
Money became scarce
Diaspora ("a scattering") of Population
Populations fled cities to rural areas
Focused on growing food & survival
Decline of Learning
Germanic invaders could not read or write
Rural areas focus on growing food & survival **ONLY CHURCH OFFICIALS REMAINED LITERATE**
Dilapidation ("breakdown") of Language
Latin was broken down into French, Spanish, & other languages
Lords provide serfs w/ housing, farmland, & protection
Serfs maintain the estate & were bound to the land (ALL peasants owed certain duties to the Lord)
Purpose of Feudalism: Provide Protection
QUIZ
Objective 2: Discuss Feudalism. Be sure to include its purpose, hierarchy, manor life, and impact.
1. The purpose of feudalism is to provide________
2. Lords provide _______, Vassals provide ______
3. Peasants bound to work the land are called _______
4. Complete the Feudal Hierarchy
5. Manorialism is an ____________ system
Kings
_________
Serfs
_________
Christianity Gains Momentum
Jesus's message of love and forgiveness (circa 29 A.D.) appeals to the masses, especially the poor
Jesus's crucifixion and resurrection verifies the prophecy & gains more converts
Paul preaches the universality of Christianity and welcoming of all people
Roman persecutions of Christians around 60 A.D. for refusal to worship gods & as scapegoats along with the matrydom of Christians inspired many converts
312 A.D. "In this sign conquer." Constantine allows all to worship freely
325 - Nicene Creed outlines basic beliefs
380 A.D. Theodosius makes Christianity the offical religion of Rome
400-600 AD - Germanic kingdoms adopt Christianity, including Clovis (511AD), ruler of the Franks...The church partners with the Franks, sponsoring their military campaigns (The two powers gained many converts)
500s- Monks and nuns spread Christianity....Monasteries became the best-educated communities as Monks opened schools and maintained libraries
590 AD - Pope Gregory I expands his rule to the secular world as leader of Christendom (raises armies, repairs roads, helps the poor)
800 AD - Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne as Emperor, signaling the power of the Church
The Crusades open the eyes of Europeans to a whole new world. The Crusades showed people a world full of ideas, goods, and wealth (spices).
Crusades = Increased Trade (People, Goods, Ideas) = Renaissance/Protestant Reformation = Age of Exploration = Scientific Revolution = Enlightenment = United States = Nationalism = Industrialization = Imperialism = World Wars = Technological Revolution
The Church became a spiritual and political ruler with the power to grant or forbid eternal salvation
Write This
DEFINITION
"Holy War"
IMPACT
Trigger: 1093 AD, Muslim Turks threatened Constantinople
Causes:
Eliminate threatening Knights
Non-heir Knights sought land, power, & fame
Assured a place in heaven upon death (sound familiar?)
Merchants profited by making loans to finance the wars and charging interest (this happens in every modern day war)
Obj. 3: Quiz
1. The term "Crusade" can be defined as a __________ _________.
2. The Church provided stability, order, and ________.

3. The major impact of the Crusades was that they open the eyes of Europeans to a whole new world full of ______, goods, and ______.

4. The key goods desired by Europeans were ________. (Cinnamon)

5. Name one cause of the Crusades. (NOT the trigger)
Objective 4: Explain the revival of trade, cities and learning as well as the financial revolution just following the Crusades .
2. Merchants brought back shiploads of goods and spices from Asia
Crusades = Increased trade w/ Asia & North Africa
Italy is a the center
Peasants traveled from Manors to Fairs in towns to trade their handcrafted goods (More Food = Specialization)
1. Increased Population (Revival of Cities)
Three-Field System
Horse, Collar, & Horseshoe
More Food = Better Nutrition = Less Dying = More People = Movement TO Cities = Specialization = Increased Trade
3. Financial Revolution
Merchants/Artisans needed to borrow money to pay for their goods to be traded at fairs
Banks grow in importance (Initially, Jews only)
4. Revival of Learning
Rise of Cities = Need for Order = Government
Goal of universities was for students to get a job in the government or in the Church
Increased Trade = New Ideas
Jews & Muslim cultures had preserved Greek teachings
Muslims also provided superior knowledge in ship technology, navigation, mathematics and weapons
Obj. 4 Quiz

1. The three-field system along with the horse led to the revival of cities because
a. Merchants were able to bring back goods from Asia & North Africa
b. Created more food which meant a higher population leading to specialization of services and movement to the cities for trade
c. Government's were able to regulate the farming industry
d. Banks gave loans to provide for horses
2. The Crusades led to a revival of trade because
a. Banks gave more loans to merchants
b. Muslims and Jews had preserved Greek teachings
c. Arabs provided knowledge of mathematics
d. Merchants brought back goods (spices) from Asia and North Africa
3. Goal of universities was to provide education in order to obtain jobs in the
a. Church
b. Military
c. Government and Military
d. Church and Government
4. During Feudalism and the Dark Ages money was non-existent, the Crusades provided a situation in which banks arose to provide loans to merchants and artisans. This is known as the
a. Financial Revolution
b. Money Exchange
c. Revival of Trade
d. Good Times
5. Jews are often sterotyped as being greedy with their money. This stereotype which partially fueled the Holocaust dates back to the Middle Ages because of a Christian sin of charging interest known as
a. Simony
b. Indulgence
c. Annointing
d. Usury
Major Impact: People think and act for themselves!!
**Authority of the Church and Monarchs Decline**
Background: Just Listen
Crusades showed people a whole new world full of ideas & wealth
Italy is at the crossroads of Europe & Asia
Survivors of wars and the plague wanted to enjoy life rather than fear it
The people began rejecting the idea that suffering was necessary for salvation
They focused on material wealth and themselves
Thus, a rebirth of the Greek & Roman view that the individual has the power to reason and change their lives for the better
Asia
Europe
Center of the Renaissance
The Renaissance: Art & Literature
Art
Literature
Leonardo da Vinci,
The Last Supper

Wealthy aristocrats became patrons of the arts
Paid artists to create sculptures, paintings, etc.
Artists focused their art on the individual
Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo
Focused on individualism as the Greeks had done








Renaissance Art

Leonardo da Vinci,
Mona Lisa

Da Vinci focused on the individual and nature

Raphael, School of Athens

Pieta, Michelangelo

Creation of Adam, Sistine Chapel, Michelangelo

Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince
Everyone admits how praiseworthy it is in a prince to keep faith, and to live with integrity and not with craft. Nevertheless our experience has been that those princes who have done great things have held faith of little account, and have known how to circumvent the intellect of men by craft, and in the end have overcome those who have relied on their word.
Sir Thomas More, Utopia, 1516
Gold and silver, of which money is made, are so treated...that no one values them more highly than their true nature deserves. Who does not see that they are far inferior to iron in uselfulness since without iron mortals cannot live any more than without fire and water?
Meaning = People should use their ability to reason, so as to not worship such things as gold & silver
Christian Humanism
“Philosophy of Christ” – Desiderius Erasmus
Human beings could use reason to improve themselves
Christians should show people how to live rather than provide a series of “practices” to be saved

Baldassare Castiglione, The Courtier, 1528
Let the man we are seeknig be very bold, stern, and always among the first, where the enemy are to be seen; and in every other place, gentle, modest, reserved, above all things avoiding ostentation (showiness) and that impudent (bold) self-praise by which men ever excite hatred and disgust in all who hear them.
Renaissance man
Charming, Witty, Well Educated, Dance, Sing, Play Music, Write Poetry, Self-Control, Skilled rider, Wrestler, and Swordsman
William Shakespeare, Hamlet
What a piece of work is a man, how noble in reason, how infinite in faculties, in form and moving., how express and admirable in action, how like an angel in apprehension, how like a god the beauty of the world; the paragon of animals.
What evidence exist that this is a work of the Renaissance?
Write a paragraph that shows evidence for this work as one from the Renaissance.
The Prince serves the basis for modern day politicians
Quiz 5: Use your book and the quote from Hamlet and write a 5-sentence minimum essay, using evidence, demonstrating Shakespeare as a Renaissance writer.
Adapted from Chinese block printing & moveable type (How?)
Johan Gutenberg, 1455
Mass printing = rapid spread of ideas
More books = lower price
Books printed in the vernacular (common language)
Printing Press
Causes of the Reformation

http://www.vatican.va/various/basiliche/san_pietro/vr_tour/Media/VR/St_Peter_Pieta/index.html
St. Peter's Basilica
http://www.vatican.va/various/cappelle/sistina_vr/index.html
Sistine Chapel
Social
Renaissance values led people to question Church and Political authority
Printing press spread Renaissance ideas of secularism and individual thought
Political
Pope became a worldly ruler more than a spiritual ruler
Threatened kings power
Economic
Kings were jealous of Church wealth
Many resented paying taxes to the Church
The Church spent money on extravagent things
Religious
Clergy focused on worldly matters
Simony - selling of church offices
Indulgences - selling of salvation
Events of the Reformation
Martin Luther, 95 Theses, 1517
Posted his ideas to a door on a church in Wittenberg
Sola Fide (Faith Alone)
Sola Scriptura (Scriptures Alone)
Pope and church traditions = false authorities
All people are equal; no need for priests
No intentions of creating revolution
Religious Effects
Protestantism
Baptists, Lutherans, Methodist, etc.
Catholic Reformation
Strengthened the Church
England becomes Protestant
Protestantism dominates the English colonies
Political Effects
Power of the Catholic Church declines
Nationalism gains momentum
Social Effects
Protestant Reformation = Extension of the Renaissance
Decrease power of the church = focus on individual reason = Enlightenment = The United States
Effects of the Protestant Reformation

What evidence exist that this is a work of the Renaissance?
What evidence exist that this is a work of the Renaissance?
Obj. 6 Quiz
Describe the causes, events, and effects of the Protestant Reformation and its effects on the world.
1. The printing press had three major impacts which included rapid spread of ideas, more affordable books, and they were written in the _________________.
2. The political causes of the Reformation were:
a. Popes were Democrats.
b. Popes crowned kings.
c. Popes focused on salvation rather than worldly matters
d. Popes focused on worldly matters rather than salvation
3. Lavish Church spending was an economic cause to the Protestant Reformation. An example can be best experienced visually in:
a. The Last Supper by Leondardo Da Vinci
b. St. Peter's Basilica (Holy See)
c. Sixteen Chapel by Michelangelo
d. The Crusades
4. In Martin Luther's 95 Theses, he introduced the ideas of Sola Fide and Sola Scriptura, which translate to salvation by __________ alone and by _________ alone. Popes and clergy were seen as falso authorities.

5. The Protestant Reformation had a distinct role in the formation of the United States. Namely, that it was an extension of the Renaissance and a reason for fleeing Catholic persecution. The major movement in history that focused on "individual reason" is known as the ____________________.
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