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Anatomy & Physiology: The Digestive System

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james donahue

on 24 October 2017

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Transcript of Anatomy & Physiology: The Digestive System

What is the major function of the colon?
What is the function of the vermiform appendix?
Why might the appendix cause a medical issue?
If there is no digestion in the colon, why bacteria?
Goblet cells?
What happens if a person takes an antibiotic?
How can one live without a colon?
The Small Intestine
The Digestive
System

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a “disassembly” line
nutrients become more available to the body in each step
The alimentary canal or (GI tract) digests and absorbs nutrients
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine
Food does not enter the accessory digestive organs

gallbladder, salivary glands, liver, and pancreas
Six essential activities
ingestion, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, propulsion, absorption and defecation
Propulsion
peristalsis
segmentation
Chemical Digestion
Mechanical Digestion
chewing, mixing and churning of food
catabolic breakdown of food
mucosa
simple columnar epithelium
rich in goblet cells
submucosa
blood and nerve supply
digestive glands
Figure 23.6
muscular
propulsion
serosa
anchors
prevents damage
Histological Layers of
the Alimentary Canal
labial frenulum
labial frenulum
lingual frenulum
Figure 23.8
Circumvallate papilla
Filiform papillae
Fungiform papilla
T
O
N
G
U
E
Parotid gland
Submandibular gland
Sublingual gland
Salivary Glands
(mixing with spit)
T
e
e
t
h
Primary - 20 deciduous
Permanent - usually 32
nasopharynx
oropharynx
laryngopharynx
epiglottis
uvula
hard palate
Of what is saliva made?
What is the function of saliva?
What foods are digested by saliva?
Why is it near impossible to swallow a tablespoon of cinnamon at one time?
P
H
A
R
Y
N
X
Swallowing
via the esophagus
D
e
g
l
u
t
i
t
i
o
n
The Mouth
uvula
opening for the
submandibular gland
opening for the sublingual gland
The Stomach
lower esophageal
sphincter
pyloric sphincter
1
2
3
4
esophagus
duodenum
What is chemically digested in the stomach?
Why doesn't the stomach digest itself?
What substances are released by gastric cells?
What is the significance of the intrinsic factor?
What hormones regulate stomach secretions and motility?
duodenum
jejunum
ileum
accomplishes the majority of both digestion and absorption
starts at the pyloric sphincter and ends at the ileocecal sphincter
receives digestive fluids from the pancreas, liver and gall bladder (as well as the stomach contents)
Plicae Circulares
Villi
Microvilli
What enzymes are made by the small intestine?
Right lobe
of the liver
Left lobe
of the liver
Falciform ligament
Round ligament
Gall bladder
Duodenum
Pancreas
The Biliary System
What does the pancreas make?
What does liver make?
What does the gall bladder make?
ileocecal
sphincter
cecum
vermiform
appendix
ascending
colon
transverse
colon
hepatic
flexure
splenic
flexure
descending
colon
sigmoid
colon
rectum
anus
haustra
taenea coli
Colon
internal anal sphincter
(involuntary)
external anal sphincter
(voluntary)
rectal veins
ano-rectal junction
Be sure you can:
Do not try this at home!
Pavlovian Responses
Conditioned Behavior
www.youtube.com/watch?v=9i2rlymfLbE
www.youtube.com/watch?v=4wmac-INoXg
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