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The Cognitive Benefits of Being Bilingual

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So Hyun An

on 18 June 2014

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Transcript of The Cognitive Benefits of Being Bilingual

The Cognitive Benefits of Being Bilingual
2014150088 정서윤

2014150107 안소현

2014150128 윤혜리
Contents
Introduction

Cognitive Consequences of Bilingualism

Changes in Neurological Processing and Structure

Improvements in Learning

Protecting Against Age-Related Decline

Comprehension questions & Discussions
Bilingual people often
perform better than monolingual people
at tasks that tap into inhibitory control ability.

Bilingual people are also
better than monolingual people
at switching between two tasks.
Why people use language?
1. To communicate our thoughts and feelings.

2. To connect with others and identify with our culture.

3. To understand the world around us.
Bilingual’s advantages
The bilingual brain can have
better attention and task-switching capacities

than the monolingual brain, thanks to its developed ability to inhibit one language while using another.

Bilingualism has
positive effects at both ends of the age spectrum
: Bilingual children as young as seven months can
better adjust to environmental changes,
while bilingual seniors can
experience less cognitive decline.
STATISTICS
Cognitive Consequences of Bilingualism
Language co-activation's drawbacks
Causing speakers to name pictures more slowly.

Increasing tip-of-the-tongue states
: Unable to fully conjure a word, but can remember specific details about it, like what letter it starts with.
Changes in neurological processing
- cognitive skills and control mechanisms
- sensory processes


Changes in neurological structure
- changes in gray / white matter volume
Changes in neurological processing & structure
Changes in Neurological Processing
Changes in cognitive skills and control mechanisms
Bilinguals showed increased activation in the
DLPFC
, a brain region associated with
cognitive skills like attention & inhibition.
Activation in
Left-IFG, ACC, bilateral supermarginal gyri
which
manages cognitive control.
Likely to be involved in
both linguistic and non-linguistic cognitive control.

Changes in sensory process
Higher neuronal activity in the brain stem in response to the sound. Advantages in auditory attention.

Changes in Neurological Structure
Higher proficiency in second language correlates with
higher gray matter volume in the left interior parietal cortex.

White matter volume changes in bilingual children and older adults.

* gray matter: 회백질
white matter: 백질
Improvements in Learning
Better processing information in the environment
→ Clearer signal for learning.
Focusing on information about new language while reducing interference form language they already know.

Positive influence in attention and conflict management to infants.
→ even for very young children, multilingual environment imparts advantages that transfer beyond language.
Protecting Against Age-Related Decline
Comprehension questions
&
Discussions

Q1. Nowadays, we are surrounded by language during nearly every waking moment of our lives. We cannot live without language.
Then, why people are using language? Find three specific right answers.

Q2. What are the real-world health benefits, the older bilingual people enjoy?
Comprehension questions
Discussions
1. Currently in Korea many elementary students go abroad to study English even before fully learning their native language. According to the passage, bilingualism is beneficial to our lives, but there are many studies that show early broad education is stressful to many children.
Based on these two conflicting position, what do you think of early-broad education to become bilingual?
2. Korean education system offers students to learn foreign language such as English, Chinese, Arabic etc through preparing for scholastic aptitude test(수능). What could be its efficient aspects in encountering different language and what could be its disadvantages in students becoming a bilingual, not a shallow learner?
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