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Historical Timeline of Psychology

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Jean Strand

on 4 August 2014

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Transcript of Historical Timeline of Psychology

Historical Timeline of Psychology
Structuralism
Functionalism
Behaviorism
Psychoanalysis
Humanistic/Existential
Cognitive-Behavioral
Tolman (
1886-1959
) - Purposive behavior and cognitive maps.
Educational Psychology
- Dewey
- Thorndike
- Woodworth
Clinical Psychology
- Whitmer
Industrial/Organizational Psychology
- Scott
- Studies
- Watson
Psychological Testing
- Cattell
- Binet
- Terman
- Wechsler
- Yerkes
Clinical Psychology
- Whitmer
Observational Learning & Modeling
- Bandura
Behavior Modification
- Skinner
Social Learning Theory
- Dollard
- Miller
1895
-
Studies in Hysteria
1900
-
The Interpretation of Dreams
1901
-
The Psychopathology of Everyday Life
ID
EGO
SUPEREGO
Existentialism was coming into the forefront.
Maslow
- Self-Actualization
- Hierarchy of Needs
Rogers
- Client-Centered Therapy
- Conditions of Worth
- Incongruence Between Real & Ideal Self
- Unconditional Positive Regard
The Anti-Psychiatry Movement
- Szasz

{Schools of Thought}
{Events in Psychology}
Changes in medical practice were taking place, such as standardization measures and an emphasis on physical origins to medical problems.
Wundt (
1832-1920
) - Created the first psychological laboratory, and he was the first to use the term "psychology" to describe a distinct field of study.
Titchener (
1867-1927
) - Studied under Wundt, and he emphasized breaking things down to study them better. Believed strongly in structuralism.
Psychology began to grow substantially. Pragmatism was becoming a philosophy, and there were a lot of progressive ideas that began to take shape. Concern for the human condition was beginning to surface, and different applied areas of psychology were beginning to emerge.
James (
1842-1910
) - "Principles of Psychology." Short-term and long-term memory were examined, and so was the consciousness.
Hall (
1844-1924
) - Founded APA in 1892.
There was a rapid growth in psychology departments and graduate students.




The plasticity of behavior, classical conditioning, and the control of emotions were all being studied.
The ability to study "consciousness" experimentally and scientifically was becoming popular.
Watson (
1913
) -
"Behaviorist Manifesto."



Skinner (
1904-1990
) - Introduced operant conditioning.
Pavlov (
1849-1936
) - Introduced classical conditioning.
Thorndike (
1874-1949
) - Introduced instrumental learning.
Hull (
1884-1952
) - Habit strength.
Tolman (
1886-1961
) - Cognitive maps.
During this time in history, physicians assumed that there was a physiological basis for symptoms.
Freud was an important figure who wanted to explore the unconscious, which was not very civilized.
Freud
The "it"
Unorganized
Basic, instinctual drives
Needs
Desires
Wants
Impulses
Reality principle
Benefiting the long term
Mediator
Organized
Conscious awareness
Internalization
Perfection
Ego ideals
Spiritual goals
Psychic agency
There were few clinical psychologists at this time.
There was a higher enrollment in psychology departments, and the development of specialty areas (memory, learning, perception, social, developmental, and physiological psychology) was beginning to surface.
Experimental studies of perception, memory, and thinking were popular during this time.
Bartlett (
1886-1969
) -
The War of the Ghosts
Lewin (
1890-1947
) - Field theory.
Piaget (
1896-1980
) - Cognitive development.
Bandura - Observational learning and self-efficacy.
Miller -
Magic Number 7, Plus or Minus 2 & Plans and the Structure of Behavior.
Neisser (
1967
) -
Cognitive Psychology
Simon (
1916-2001
) - Decision making and bounded rationality.
Information Processing Approaches

- Norman
- Atkinson
Cognitive Science

- Cognitive Psychology (Experimental)

- Computer Science
- Neuroscience
- Evolutionary Psychology
Cognitive Therapy

- Ellis

- Beck
- Michenbaum
Kelly (
1955
) - Personal construct theory.
Assessments were becoming popular, and so was the treatment of psychiatric disorders.
APA was re-organized. It represented both academic and professional psychologists.
The VA hospitals were beginning to expand.
There were limited Ph.D degrees available during this time.
1947 - The Boulder conference.
Community mental health centers.
1977 - The Vail conference (the inception of the PsyD).
Private practice was beginning to become more popular.
The "Golden Age" of psychotherapy practice.
Treatment guidelines were established.
Empirically-supported therapies were being established.
Evidence-based practice.
Healthcare and the position of psychology.
APA was founded.
Freud - Topographical (Drive) Model
Freud - Structural Model
Psychodynamic
Freud - Topographical (Drive) Model & Structural Model
Adler - Individual Psychology
Jung - Analytic Psychology
Ego Psychology
A. Freud -
Ego Defense Mechanisms
Hartman & White -
The Autonomous Ego
Erickson -
Stages of Ego Development
Psychoanalytic Social/Interpersonal Psychology
Horney -
Tyranny of the Shoulds & the Core Neurotic Conflict
Fromm -
Escape from Freedom
Stack Sullivan -
Interpersonal Theory
Object Relations
Klein
Fairbairn
Mahler -
Separation/Individuation
Bowlby -
Attachment Theory
Mitchell -
American Relational Theories
Winnicott
Self Psychology & Narcissism
- Kohut
Narrative & Postmodernism
- Spence
Feminist empiricism in psychology.
Feminist standpoint epistemologies.
Feminism and postmodernism.
Modern scientific viewpoints in psychology.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act are passed.
Darwin (
1809-1882
) - Theory of evolution.
Galton (
1822-1911
) - Psychological and biological variations.
DSM-I
DSM-II
DSM-III
DSM-III-R
DSM-IV
DSM-IV-TR
DSM-5
President Barack Obama announced the 10-year BRAIN Initiative to map the activity of every neuron in the human brain.
Most medical and healthcare records are going electronic.
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