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ATOMIC NUCLEI AND NUCLEAR STABILITY

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by

MARIUS UCENIC

on 26 October 2013

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Transcript of ATOMIC NUCLEI AND NUCLEAR STABILITY

Chapter 18- Nuclear chemistry, part 1
SECTION 1
ATOMIC NUCLEI AND NUCLEAR STABILITY
MASS DEFECT
MASS DEFECT
is the
difference
between the
sum of the masses
of the
nucleons and the
mass of the nucleus of the atom.
REMINDER!

Atomic Mass Unit, amu

One
atomic mass unit (1 amu)
is equal to one-twelfth of the mass of the most abundant form of the carbon atom--carbon-12.

THE END OF PART 1
TO BE CONTINUED...
STRONG FORCE
STRONG FORCE IS THE INTERACTION THAT BINDS NUCLEONS TOGETHER IN A NUCLEUS.
PROTONS
AND
NEUTRONS
ARE MADE UP OF
QUARKS.
QUARKS
ARE PRODUCTS FORMED IN HIGH-ENERGY COLLISIONS.
THERE ARE
SIX FLAVORS
OF QUARKS:
UP
AND
DOWN
TOP
AND
BOTTOM
STRANGE
AND
CHARM
TWO UP QUARKS AND ONE DOWN QUARK.
PROTONS
ARE MADE UP OF:
ONE UP QUARK AND TWO DOWN QUARKS.
NEUTRONS
ARE MADE UP OF:
BINDING ENERGY AND NUCLEAR STABILITY
THE ENERGY RELEASED WHEN NUCLEONS COME TOGETHER IS CALLED
NUCLEAR BINDING ENERGY.

separate nucleons go and form the nucleus + energy
to very high energies and smashing them into targets, or into each other, new particles are produced.
This happens when matter turns into energy and back again
following
Einstein’s

famous equation
:

By
accelerating
particles…
Let's calculate the mass defect for the
helium atom:
Sum of He nucleons= 2(mass of proton) + 2(mass of neutron) = 2(1.007 276 amu) + 2(1.008 665 amu) =
4.031 882 amu

Mass defect
=
(total mass of separate nucleons) – (mass of helium nucleus)
= 4.031 882 amu – 4.002 602 amu = 0.02928 amu per nucleus of He.
NOTE:use the Periodic Table to find the mass of the nucleus.
IN CONCLUSION:
A SMALL QUANTITY OF MASS IS CONVERTED INTO AN ENORMOUS AMOUNT OF ENERGY!
Atomic mass unit:
1 amu = 1.6606 x E-27 kg
Common atomic masses:
Proton: 1.007276 amu
Electron: 0.00055 amu
Neutron: 1.008665 amu
Full transcript