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Latin American Independence and Postcolonial Latin America
Transcript of Latin American Independence and Postcolonial Latin America
Spain had firm control over much of Latin America from the 1500s through 1800s
No free trade
What can bring the people together?
1807 - The Portuguese royal family fleas Portugal as Napoleon invades the Iberian Peninsula; Prince João establishes court in Rio de Janeiro
1817 - liberal uprising in Pernambuco
1820 - Portuguese Assembly meets (regarding João's 1815 declaration)
1821 - João returns to Portugal
Liberal juntas begin to meet and send their own representatives to Lisbon
By 1822, Brazilian elite had formed Brazilian Party
1822 - Prince Pedro declares Brazil an independent constitutional monarchy and is crowned Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil
The most famous Latina spy goes under the name of "La Pola". She would use her identity as a seamstress to gain entry into the homes of Creoles. La Pola was caught in 1817, and sentenced to a harsh death. Her face was used as a martyr to the Latin American Revolution and remains a heroine.
Punishing women for disloyalty was not uncommon, but this did not stop the women from disobeying the those above them
Causes for Revolution
Spanish Latin America
Instability in Spain (incompetent king, court)
Bankruptcy = higher taxes, sale of high offices
French Revolution (1789-99)
Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815)
Women After the Revolution
Following independence, women were expected to go back to their usual professions as house wives and mothers. The social boundaries were drawn back to normal for them, but women were more educated than ever.
1817 - aristocrat & Creole Simón Bolívar begins a wave of triumphs across South America
Utilizes nativism & military cunning to attract Venezuelan llaneros to his side
1819 - crosses Orinoco and surprised Spanish forces; overtook Bogotá
By 1822, Bolívar's forces had also captured Caracas and Quito
After overtaking the remaining royalist strongholds in Argentina, general José de San Martín trains a combined Argentine-Chilean patriot army in order to cross the Andes and seize Santiago
San Martín launches an expedition against Lima where he declares Peruvian independence
1822 - met with Bolívar in Guayaquil
1824 - Bolívar attains independence in Peru and Bolivia
Spanish American Independence Movements
Mexico - Fathers Miguel Hidalgo and José María Morelos (uprisings from below)
Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador - Remained relatively stable during crisis years of early 1810s
Fringe Spanish LA (i.e. Venezuela & Argentina) - Patriot juntas of Caracas and BA began as cabildos abiertos of the most influential citizens (revolution from above)
- patriots ultimately subdued by llaneros in Venezuela
- by 1810, Peninsular control had ended in BA
Movements in Society
Starting in the late eighteen hundreds, societies began to reform depending on how prone the countries were to enlightenment.
Women were the first to get jobs in the industrial business, having better jobs than most men at the time. Women from all countries would come together as feminists to discuss their problems on to a common understanding, over coming tradition and old ways of society.
Women in Politics
Women were always behind in political power. The earliest countries to grant voting rights to women were Cuba (1934) and Puerto Rico (1932), even though these two countries were highly controlled by the United States. Motivation drove women from restricted countries to fight even harder for their own rights. Political writings also have helped women achieve more rights in this area.
French and Latin American Revolution
destroying a class system
overcoming a stronger country/questioning the legitimacy of king
fighting for rights
many great leaders arose
Latin American Revolution
class pyramid organized by wealth
church under government control
under strict rule of a king
class pyramid organized by race/"blood"
people suppressed due to race
women impacted the revolts
Latin Americans were ruled by a a mother country
Napoleon Bonaparte & The French Revolution
- Spain has its own liberal revolution, weakening an already unstable country
- Spanish liberals force Fernando VII to restore the constitution
- Many formerly royalist Creoles felt betrayed
Patronage Politics and the rise of Caudillismo
Both liberals and conservatives saw politics as a means to attain personal wealth and success
Objective = win office, take over government, distribute "spoils" of office
Patron gave these "spoils" (patronage) to family, friends, political allies, servants, employees, & followers to reward loyalty
Led to widespread corruption
Less about partisan politics and more about loyalty
Caudillos rose to power
Traits and Legacies of Colonialism
durability and stability
Agustín Iturbide, Creole army commander, joins forces with Vicente Guerrero, a mestizo patriot, to unite the Creoles/poorer classes
Rallied followers with guarantees of an independent, constitutional Mexican monarchy that preserved traditional religious/military privileges & social "union"
1821 - Iturbide enters Mexico City triumphantly where crowds called for his coronation as Agustín I
Constitutional monarchy did not work out
When Iturbide closed congress, military leaders overthrew him & ushered in a republic
postcolonial = self-governing, but still shaped by colonial heritage
independent, sovereign nations (constitutional republics, save Brazil)
society remained largely unchanged
language and laws
Colonial vs. Postcolonial* = very much the same
"America for Americans"
social hierarchy/caste system changed very little at first
conservative hierarchy, little social mobilization
political violence and corruption
absence of "true" liberalism (social & economic changes like a rise in capitalist trade, manufacturing, and a middle class)
US South (exploitative labor systems)
need for capital; no banks
control of import/export trade
lack of transportation infrastructure
overdeveloped armies, understaffed governments
Postcolonial Instability (cont.)
political theory vs. social reality (i.e. racial equality)
notion of a popular sovereignty, a government "of the people"
= partisan politics emerged
looked at progressive models (U.S., French, & English)
Separation of church & state
traditionalists - colonial or Spanish models
"know your place"
church/Catholicism very important
Juan Manuel de Rosas
powerful political leaders
frequently came from the upper classes
often war heroes/generals
embodied deal "masculine" qualities like bravery, loyalty, generosity, sexual glamour
possessed a "common touch"/charisma
often great orators
as caudillos rose to power, their sole public service became maintaining order, providing security, and protecting property
Antonio López de Santa Anna
Society and Daily Life
landowners were the most powerful
countryside defined national identity
folk art and dance
civilized vs. uncivilized
honor system changed slightly (i.e. chastity, motherhood, military service, etc.)
social hierarchy depended upon wealth, "decency"
two basic class categories: "decent people" and "el pueblo"
The Brazilian Counterexample (cont.)
provincial governors appointed by Rio
strong imperial army
burgeoning economy (coffee) = strong imperial capital
The Brazilian Counterexample
Pedro I had authoritarian tendencies
wars in the south
continued involvement in Portuguese politics
Portuguese still occupied positions of power in independent Brazil
= Brazilians wanted "Brazil for the Brazilians"
= riots and instability
= liberals worried about recolonization
1831 - Pedro I abdicates the throne & returns to Portugal, leaves his son, Prince Pedro, in power
1831-40 - regency years (instability)
regents instituted liberal policies, but then wanted their power back
= Brazil needed strong royal authority over democracy
= 1840 - national assembly voted to put Prince Pedro on the throne