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Transcript of Galileo Project
The Galileo Project By Molly Pfefferkorn, Margaret Hua, and Ellie O'Brien Social and Political Tensions Present in the Renaissance and Reformation Galileo: A Man of Science Born on February 15, 1564 in Pisa, Italy
First became famous for his revolutionary new telescope
Used this to discover that...
Moon's surface is covered with craters
Jupiter has four moons that orbit the planet in an elliptical orbit (inferred that the moon orbits the earth in the same way)
Also strongly believed in a heliocentric solar system (the center of which is the sun) Retaliation From the Catholic Church Science-y Ideas vs Church Ideas Consequences: Galileo's Trial Cardinal Bellarmine
Warning (Document 2) Bibliography Galileo's pic: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/35489/35489-h/35489-h.htm
Moon Pic: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/resources/lunar_orbiter/
"Galileo." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 24 Jan. 2013. <http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/317176?terms=Galileo+Galilei>
"Galileo: indictment and abjuration (1633)." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 24 Jan. 2013. <http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/354584?terms=Galileo+Galilei>
"Galileo's diagram of heliocentric universe." Image. Jupiterimages. World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 24 Jan. 2013.<http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/1324237?terms=Galileo+Galilei>
"Galileo's telescope." Image. Institute and Museum of the History of Science, Florence. World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 24 Jan. 2013. <http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/360475?terms=Galileo+Galilei>
"Robert Bellarmine." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 24 Jan. 2013. <http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/316784?terms=Galileo+Galilei>
Unkown. "Madam Christina." Wikipaintings. Unkown, n.d. Web. 25 Jan. 2013.
- - -. "Moon." Lunar and Planetary Institute. Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2012. Web. 25 Jan. 2013. <http://www.lpi.usra.edu/resources/lunar_orbiter/>. Main Problems with Galileo's Views:
Believed in a heliocentric universe, at which center of which is the sun
Conflicted with the Catholic teachings and views which dictated that the EARTH was at the center of the universe.
This controversial theory shook the people's faith in the Church (a tremor which contributed to the Scientific Revolution)
As a result, the Church accused Galileo of heresy against the Church. Bellarmine's Letter (Document 1) Robert Bellarmine was a Cardinal, a Jesuit spiritual leader, a professor of theology, and a friend of Galileo's. However, he knew of the impending retaliation of the church, and sent a letter of warning to Father Paolo Antonio Foscarini, (who supported Galileo and his ideas) detailing that while Galileo's heliocentric ideas might be hypothetical, they just COULDN'T be true, as, "to want to affirm that the Sun, in very truth, is at the centre of the universe and only rotates on its axis without traveling from east to west, and that the Earth is situated in the third sphere and revolves very swiftly around the Sun, is a very dangerous attitude and one calculated not only to arouse all Scholastic philosophers and theologians but also to injure our hold faith by contradicting the Scriptures…." Bellarmine went on to say,
"...if there were a real proof that the Sun is in the centre of the universe, that the Earth is in the third sphere, and that the Sun does not go round the Earth but the Earth round the Sun, then we should have to proceed with great circumspection in explaining passages of Scripture which appear to teach the contrary, and we should rather have to say that we did not understand them than declare an opinion to be false which is proved to be true. But I do not think there is any such proof since none has been shown to me." Galileo's Subsequent Letter to The Grand Duchess Christina
In an attempt to gain the power needed to protect himself from the church's impending counterattack, Galileo wrote to the Grand Duchess Christina, arguing the frailty of the relation of what the Bible had to say to ACTUAL SCIENCE, also wrote to hopefully gain the support of the Medicis (Christina was a member of the family). "Some years ago, as Your Serene Highness well knows, I discovered in the heavens many things that had not been seen before our own age. The novelty of these things, as well as some consequences which followed from them in contradiction to the physical notions commonly held among academic philosophers, stirred up against me no small number of professors-as if I had placed these things in the sky with my own hands in order to upset nature and overturn the Sciences...." Galileo was brought in front of the Inquisition and was threatened with death if he didn't recant his so-called "heresies" against the church. He did so (see below) and was instead placed under house arrest for the rest of his life. The following comes from Galileo's Abjuration (recanting of his beliefs)
"I, Galileo, son of the late Vincenzo Galileo, Florentine, aged seventy years, arraigned personally before this tribunal, and kneeling before you, Most Eminent and Reverend Lord Cardinals, Inquisitors-General against heretical depravity throughout the entire Christian commonwealth, having before my eyes and touching with my hands, the Holy Gospels, swear that I have always believed, do believe, and by God's help will in the future believe, all that is held, preached, and taught by the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church..." "...for this reason I have been pronounced by the Holy Office to be vehemently suspected of heresy, that is to say, of having held and believed that the Sun is the center of the world and immovable, and that the earth is not the center and moves:..." "Therefore, desiring to remove from the minds of your Eminences, and of all faithful Christians, this vehement suspicion, justly conceived against me, with sincere heart and unfeigned faith I abjure, curse, and detest the aforesaid errors and heresies, and generally every other error, heresy, and sect whatsoever contrary to the said Holy Church, and I swear that in the future I will never again say or assert, verbally or in writing, anything that might furnish occasion for a similar suspicion regarding me..." Galileo's trial was a perfect example of the ongoing struggle between the traditional ideas of the Church and the up-and-coming ideas of science.
Even though the tireless unrelenting of the Inquisition led to the Catholic Church winning this round, eventually, people would start to recognize not only the holes in some Catholic teachings, but also the reasoning behind many of the new scientific ones. It would be this questioning of faith that would eventually lead to the Scientific Revolution. "Showing a greater fondness for their own opinions than for truth, they sought to deny and disprove the new things which, if they had cared to look for themselves, their own senses would have demonstrated to them. To this end they hurled various charges and published numerous writings filled with vain arguments, and they made the grave mistake of sprinkling these with passages taken from places in the Bible which they had failed to understand properly… Hence, in expounding the Bible, if one were always to confine oneself to the unadorned grammatical meaning, one might fall into error. Not only contradictions and propositions far from true might thus be made to appear in the Bible, but even grave heresies and follies. Thus it would be necessary to assign to God feet, hands, and eyes, as well as corporeal and human affections, such as anger, repentance, hatred, and sometimes even the forgetting of things past and ignorance of those to come...." "For that reason it appears that nothing physical which sense-experience sets before our eyes, or which necessary demonstrations prove to us, ought to be called in question (much less condemned) upon the testimony of biblical passages which may have some different meaning beneath their words...." Renaissance Thinkers explored Humanism, which focused on the value of humans and individual achievements The Catholic Reformation The Church directed much of the followers' thoughts
In 1540, the Society of Jesus becomes a religious order. They underwent rigorous religious teachings and absolute obedience to the church.
In 1600, the majority of people in Europe were Catholic
They argue with the Protestants over government and other topics Society had a high interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome, but they expanded their ideas further onto science such as math, physics, and astronomy. Though most Humanists were Christian, they focused on art and education rather than just religion Most people were poor because wealth was spread unevenly in society. They wanted a better society. Humanist ideas were used to question the Church, a vital part of their lives The Medici family, the wealthiest family in Europe, supported the arts and spread Humanism The Reformation Peasant's Revolt Peasants rebelled, demanding for changes in their harsh lives Religious figures and other nobles oppressed them, killing tens of thousands of peasants
Tension grows English Reformation Henry VIII takes over the Church of England and renames it the Anglican Church
Young Edward VI takes the throne and brings Protestant reformation to England
Mary Tudor becomes the leader and forcefully makes the country Catholic
Queen Elizabeth makes a compromise between the religions and stops the religious wars Northern Europeans begin a religious rebellion Beginning of the Reformation Popes fought against princes for political power Individuals such as Martin Luther become angry at corrupted churches who sold indulgences With the help of the printing press, Luther's ideas spread and civilians question their religion
Lutheranism and Calvinism become new religions.
Later on, other groups such as the Anabaptists followed variations of these religions y Summary People riot against Church for abusing power They question their beliefs and new religions are formed
Political figures become involved in the world of religion
Religious groups fight against each other for years
Religion takes over aspects of life