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Transcript of PTSD
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is the complex somatic, cognitive, affective and behavioral effect of Psychological Trauma.
Trauma & Stress
Their influence on Psychopathology,and a specific section on PTSD
(cc) photo by medhead on Flickr
PTSD occurs in many populations
The lifetime prevalence of PTSD ranges from 6.8 % to 12.3% of the general population in the United States
Treatment of PTSD
(cc) photo by medhead on Flickr
MRI scans indicate decreased volume of the hippocampus, left amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex.
Amy Graham, Daisy Tsang. Kiel Opperman & Shawna Tanner
Presented for Dr. Douglas Barnett
Wayne State Univeristy
Epidemiology & Pathophysiology
Marked cognitive, affective & behavioral responses to stimuli
Fleeing or combative behavior
There is also evidence of neurotransmitter and hormonal changes.
being kidnapped or held captive
natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes.
US psychiatrists and psychologists have initiated an impressive number of research projects on treatment strategies for PTSD.
Today, Hundreds of thousands of service men and women have seen combat. Many have been shot at, seen their buddies killed or witnessed death close up. These are types of events that can lead to PTSD.
The Us Department of Veteran Affairs estimates that PTSD afflicts:
31 % of Vietnam Veterans
10 % of Gulf War (Desert storm) Veterans
11% of the Veterans of the War in Afghanistan
20% of Iraqi War Veterans.
THE PROBLEM IS REAL
Causes & Contributing Factors
Symptoms & Criteria for Diagnosis
Studies show that suicide risk is higher in persons with PTSD. Of combat trauma survivors, those who were wounded more than once or put in the hospital for a wound have the highest suicide risk.
What Can we Do?
Prevalence is higher in women than in men (10.4% versus 5%)
After trauma women are four times more likely to develop PTSD
There are 6 criteria for diagnosis
Four Categories of Symptoms
Stress & Trauma
PTSD Epidemiology & Pathophysiology
Screening & Treatment
Primary Care PTSD Screen (PC-PTSD)
Short Form of the PTSD Checklist
Short Screening Scale for PTSD
Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ)
PTSD Checklist (PCL)
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical
manual of mental disorders (Revised 5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Ciechanowski, P., & Katon, W. (2012). Posttraumatic stress disorder:
Epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis. Retrieved from http:// www. uptodate.com/contents/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-epidemiology-pathophysiology-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?source=search_result&search=PTSD&selectedTitle=1~108
Craig, G. (2013, February 8). EFT (Tapping) for War Veterans with
PTSD. [Video File]. Retrieved from
Mayo Clinic (2011, April 8). Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
Retrieved from http:// www. mayoclinic . com/health/post-traumatic-stress-disorder/DS00246
National Center for PTSD (2013, April 8). National Center for PTSD
Webpage. Washington, DC: United States Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved from http:// www. ptsd. va. gov/
Veterans Health Administration (2012, February 3). “Waking Up” – A
Message from the Veterans Crisis Line. [Video file]. Retrieved from https:// www. youtube .com /watch?v=35ZUZJNLtfw
Veterans Health Administration (2012, July 13). What is Prolonged
Exposure (PE) [for posttraumatic stress disorder]? [Video file]. Retrieved from https:// www. youtube .com /watch?v=AUOYFQTm9lE
The one-year prevalence of PTSD ranges from 3.5-6 percent in the US general population
Many different types of trauma can result in PTSD, including military combat, sexual or physical assault, disasters, childhood sexual abuse, severe physical injury and ICU hospitalization.
The pathophysiology of PTSD is not well understood. However, differences in neuroanatomy, neurotransmitters, and brain functioning has been found in persons with PTSD.
Individuals with PTSD experience marked cognitive, affective and behavioral responses to stimuli reminding them of the trauma they experienced, which can include flashbacks, severe anxiety, and fleeing or combative behavior.
PTSD is commonly accompanied by comorbid psychiatric conditions, including depression and substance abuse.
Treatment for the disorder includes three types of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and medication.
The VA has several measurements in place to monitor best care practice in relation to PTSD, including On-Line CE courses, an awareness campaign, screening within primary care and tracking of pre- and Post-care outcomes.
Do you have any questions?
Stress is the emotional way in which we respond to changes or pressures in our lives
Trauma comes in many forms
Trauma is a disordered psychic or behavioral state resulting from severe mental or emotional stress or physical injury
Examples of Trauma
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder is the most common diagnostic category used to describe symptoms arising from emotionally traumatic experiences.