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PSY 629 Lecture on Differential Reinforcement

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Michael Cameron

on 7 March 2016

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Transcript of PSY 629 Lecture on Differential Reinforcement

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PSY 629
Toolbox for Clinicians
your tools
Differential
Reinforcement
Differential reinforcement can be a useful tool to shape and refine forms of behavior by
reinforcing differently
one response over another, either by using a higher value reinforcer or greater amounts of reinforcement
Reinforce
what Behavior
Differently?
How about
Other
Differential Reinforcmenet and
Extinction

Lecture Goals

To define differential reinforcement and discrimination
To review the differential reinforcement procedures (DRO, MDRO, DRA, DRI, DRL, DRH)
To define extinction and the functional variations
To disucss how to use extinction procedures
To discuss emergency and safety net plans.
Throughout this entire lecture, we will also
discuss your ethical requirements
Questions
Answers
Reality
Recruit your knowledge
from your work on preference assessments and remember to diversify reinformcement and
consider
: social reinforcers, activity reinforcers, and tangilbe reinforcers. Remember
to plan in accordance with all cultural considerations and to ensure
there is a "goodness of fit" between your plan, the person, and the environment. Recall your ethcial responsibilites regarding the use of reinforcement. The intension of a Behavior Intervenion Plan is to support positive change
Nothing is static
, what functions as a reinforcer is ever changing
Make it achievable
. Like everyhting else we do, the schedule we select for
reinforcmenet delivery must be a data-based decision
State the contingency:
verbally, through textual information or via visual
supports
Be on time
with the delivery

Emphasize the aesthetic arrangements
and maintain the dignity of your clients
Make it educational.
Skinner and "educational
reinforcement"
All differnetial reinforcement procedures consist of two components: (a) providing reinforcment upon either the occurrence of a behavior other than the problem behavior, or the problem behavior occuring at a reduced rate, and (b) withholding reinforcment following the occurrence of a problem behavior. Differential procedures have been classified as evidence-based practices. We have an ethical responsiiblity to use evidence-based practices
Behavior "other than" the problem
behavior. Introducing
Differential
Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)
.
The procedure emphasizes what "not to do"
rathar than "what to do"
Differetial Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)
is a procedure that provides reinforcement for the absense (or omission) of a problem behavior during or at specified times. The DRO is an "interval based" system. The appropriate interval to use must be detemined by the Inter-response Time (IRT) of the behavior of concern. A variation of the DRO is the
Momentary DRO (MDRO)
. The
MDRO
relies
on the structure of Momentary Time Sampling for implementation
Case Study and Anchor
Background:
Gracie is a 9 year-old girl with a hemispherectomy as a result of uncontrolled seizures. Gracie wanders and leaves her home
Scenario:
Gracie has been found by her neighbors walking in the
breakdown lane of a high traffic street
Strategy:
We used wearable technology and the use of
a Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior procedure to reinforce all behaviors
other
than walking beyond an adjustable parimeter
Data:
Percentage of DRO contracts passed and frequency of wantering
Behavior "altenrative" to the problem
behavior.
Introducing Differential
Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA).

This procedure involves reinforcing behavior
alternative to the problem behavior
The DRA procedure involves the RBT reinforcing a response that is an
alternative

to the problem behavior but not necessarily incompatible with the problem
behavior. Reinforcement is delivered on some pre-determined schedule (e.g., a
Fixed Ratio or Variable Ratio schedule)
Case Study and Anchor
Background:
Cleo was a 16 year-old high school girl with a trauma history.
Scenario:
Cleo had an extensive history of firesetting behavior. Cleo history included setting fire to personal possessions and buring down the apartment building where her family lived. Concerning discussions about
firesetting occurred, daily, during the morning "homeroom" period in her high school (verified by way of a Scatter Plot analysis). Cleo was also
a gifted artist but her family was unable to purchase her materials. According to the results of her FBA, the verbal behavior appeared to be attention motivated.


Strategy:
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA) and
Correspondence Training (Say - Do - Report). We provided art supplies, a
peer group of artists, and reinforcement for verbal behavior alternative to discussions about arson.
Data:
Frequency of verbal references to arson

Reinforce what
Behavior Differently?
How about
Alternative
Behavior

Reinforce what
Behavior Differently?
How about
Incompatible
Behavior

Behavior "incompatible" with a problem
behavior. Introducing
Differential
Reinforcement of Incompatible
Behavior (DRI).

Case Study and Anchor
Background:
Piers is a 25 year-old man with Tourette Syndrome. Based on a self-report, Piers indicated that his motor tics were embarrassing and disruptive.
Scenario:
Piers has a complex motor tic referred to as "Echo Phenomena", specifically, he repeats the mannerisms he observes in other people. If you are talking to Piers and happen to gesture to someone in the room, he will then mirror your action and gesture in an identical manner. And if reached to your face to adjust your eyeglasses, he would repeat the gesture, even though he did not wear eyeglasses
Strategy:
Competing Response Training, a stragegy that involves teaching a client to engage in voluntary behaivors that are physically incompatible with the impending tics. Competing Response Training is part of a Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT). The
treatment package was developed by a team of researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Yale University, and the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. Specifically, Piers was taught to press his elbows into his torso whenever the antecedents for an echo tic occurred (which he learned during the "awareness" phase of the program). A self monitoring and self recording component was also part of the program.
Data:
Piers maintained a tally of total "successes" and total nunmber of tics using a Behavioral Intervention Technology device called
Tallymander
Reinforce what
Behavior Differently?
How about
Low Rates
Reinforce what
Behavior Differently?
How about
High Rates

Case Study and Anchor
Background:
Phubbing. To ignore (or a person or one's surroundings) in a social situaton by busying oneself with a phone or other mobile device.
Case Study and Anchor
The DRI procedure involves a clinician reinforcing responses that are
physicially incompatible
with the target behavior (i.e., it is impossible for the two behavors to occur
at the same time, such as imitatig someone's movements, and pressing your elbows into your toro).
Reinforcement is delivered based on some pre-determined scheudle (e.g., after each occurrence of a response or an FR 1 (Fixed Ratio 1)
Scenario:
An undergraduate student's experiment at the California State University, Northridge (CSUN). The experiment involved a female undergraduate student measuring the "inter-
response time" of her boyfriend's phubbing behavior in a restaurant (where she found it most embarrassing and distressing). Her boyfriend
would frequently "pick-up" and "put down" the phone while in a restaurant. The boyfriend loved to talk about traveling to foregin and exotic countries such as Thailand.
Strategy:
The student collected IRT baseline data, and then set-up a "spaced responding" DRL intervention.
Lower rates
of a behavior that has been targeted for change
There are full session, interval, and spaced responding DRL schedules. A
full session
DRL involves delivering reinforcment when responding is equal to, or below, a criterion level for the entire session. An
interval
DRL schedule involves dividing the full session into a series of equal intervals. Reinforcement is delivered if responding is eqal to, or below a criterion level, for the interval. During
spaced

responding
, reinforcement is arranged when a responses are spearated by a certain amout of time
Data:
An interval session DRL schedule was used and IRT data were collected
Higher rates
of a
behavior that has been targeted for increase
Differential Reinforcement of High Rates of Behavior (DRH) occurs when the delivery of reinforcement is contingent on responses occurring at a rate higher than a pre-determined criterion. DRH schedules produce high rates of respondng and shorter inter-response times
Background:
When I was 15 years-old I worked at the Hasbro Toy Factory in Pawtucket, Rhode Ialand. I worked on an assembly line
Scenario:
When high production was necessary, the foreman would jump up and walk on the assembly line. He would tell us if we could increase production
within a half hour, we would be able to finish our 3:00 PM to 11:00 PM shift early. We all worked faster.
Strategy:
Differential Reinforcement of High Rate behavior (full session)
Data:
The number of GI Joe dolls assembled
Extinction
Our emphasis has been on strengthening
stimulus - response - consequence
relationships. However,
we also want to eliminate (withhold) reinforcment that maintains a behavior problem in the first place. In order to reduce or eliminate a behavior, we use one of the basic principles in behavior analysis:
Extinction
. Extinction involves withholding and discontining the reinforcement responsible for maintaining a behavior. The result is the reduction or elimination of the target behavior. Extinction requires your understanding of the function of a behavior. Extinction is different from punishment.

We have an obligation to conduct a
Functional Behavior Assessment or
Functional Analysis in order to responsibly select, design, and classify
our behavioral interventions

Extinction is a critical component of
a differential reinforcement procedure. Essentially, we are responsbile for arranging reinforcing consequences for the behaviors that need to be increased and to withhold reinforcmenet for the behaviors that need to be decreased

EXT (sensory)
Automatic Reinforcement
EXT (escape)
Negative Reinforcement
EXT (attention)
Positive Reinforcement
EXT (tangibles)
Positive Reinforcement
Crisis and Safety Net Plans
List the different types of differnetial reinforcement procedures
DRO, MDRO, DRA, DRI, DRL, DRH
Which procedures are time-based?

DRO and MDRO
Which differential reinforcement procedure requires you to reinforce behavior that is physically incompatible with the target behavior?
DRI

What are the four variations of extinction and why are they important?
EXT (
s
ensory) EXT (
e
scape) EXT (
a
ttention) EXT (
t
angible). Procedures
must be based on the function of behavior
Why are crisis and Safety Net
plans so necessary

Crisis and Saftey Net plans can be prepared proactively and will give
staekholders a procedure to follow when in a crisis
Crisis and Safety Net Plans
Reasons
All Things Considered
Wandering
Aggression
Self-Injurious
Behavior

Allergy

Seizures

Suicide
Threats
Bipolar
Disorder

Incident Reports

Planning

Communication

Rehearsal
Full transcript