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AP Government ! WHOOOOOOO!

Every single detail that we have ever learned in this class

Amanda Shields

on 12 March 2013

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Transcript of AP Government ! WHOOOOOOO!

SEG. #1 Constitutional Underpinnings monarchy American Government Early American Colonists Roots and Reform Theories of Power Evolutionary: the belief that if many people were put together, one will rise up into the leadership position. Makes the person more capable. Social Contract: people sign over their rights to be governed
individuals are free and equal by natural right. Force: theory that a person uses force in order to gain and remain in power Divine Right: the belief that one was chosen by God European beginnings Protestant- (W.A.S.P.) slave trade Europeans:
Catholics Asians Hispanics Eastern Europeans general welfare first steps toward independence checks and balances:
A constitutionally mandated structure that gives each of the 3 branches of government some degree of oversight and control over the actions of the others Problems with the Articles :
no unified currency
weak federal authority
no standing army
confusion over enforcement
1 vote for each state
no resources to back up currency
lack of authority to deal with trade wars roots of new American government a form of government in which power is vested in hereditary kings and queens who govern in the interest of all totalitarianism a form of government in which power resides in a leader who rules according to self-interest and without regard for individual rights and liberties Oligarcy a form of government in which the right to participate is conditioned on the possession of wealth, social status, military position, or achievement direct democracy
a system of government in which members of the same political party meet to discuss all policy decisions and then agree to abide by majority rule. indirect democracy
a system of government that gives citizens the opportunity to vote for representatives who work on their behalf, republic
a government rooted in the consent of the governed; representative or indirect democracy democracy
a system of government that gives power to the people, whether directly or indirectly personal liberty
a key characteristic of U.S. democracy. Initially meaning freedom from governmental interference. Today it includes demands for freedom to engage in a variety of practices without governmental interference or discrimination. Political equality
the principal that all citizens are the same in the eyes of the law Majority rule
The central premise of direct democracy in which only policies that collectively garner the support of a majority of voters will be made into law Popular sovereignty
the notion that the ultimate authority in society rests with the people Natural law
A doctrine that society should be governed by certain ethical principles that are part of nature and, as such, can be understood by reason Declaration of Independence
states every man is equal to another
protects liberties: life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
explains how the 13 colonies are no longer tied to British rule New Jersey vs Virginia plan Thomas Hobbes and John Locke proposed the social contract theory: This freedom, amongst other things, were stated in his book of Leviathan. He inferred that humanity's natural state was one of war. He also concluded that people must give up certain rights to the government. Hobbes argued for a single ruler, to guarantee the rights of the weak against the strong Early ideas about Government: In contrast to Hobbes, John Locke took basic survival of humanity for granted. He argued a government's major responsibility was the preservation of private property- this idea eventually found its way into the U.S. Constitution. He not only denied divine right of kings to govern but argued that individuals were born equal and with natural rights that no king had the power to void. He believed the consent of the people was the only true basis of any sovereign's right to rule. True justice comes from the law. Locke argued the branch of government that makes laws should be the most powerful.
his book of Second Treatise of Civil Government greatly inspired the Declaration of Independence NJ:


strong central government
representatives based on statehood VA:


strong national government
representatives based on population SAME: 3 branches of government, congress chooses executive
congress retains powers from
articles of confederation The Federalist Papers: a series of 85 political essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay in support of ratification of the U.S. Constitution government's involvement with the general people crown could not govern efficiently enough escape from religious persecution seeking a new start land independence House of Burgesses created decisions needed made development of colonial industry self governing weakened ties and loyalty to the crown Stamp Act Congress-first official meeting of colonies to create a unified nation Boston Massacre-British troops open fire on a mob, killing 5 colonists Treaty of Paris-ended French & Indian war Townshed Acts- passed by British Parliment impose duties on colonial imports, including tea Boston Tea Party- public protest in Boston Harbor is held in reaction to what the colonists believe to be oppressive taxes on tea and other goods hi First Continental Congress Second Continental Congress Declaration of Independence Articles of Confederation meeting that convened in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775, at which it was decided that an army should be raised and George Washington of Virginia was named commander in chief meeting held in Philadelphia from September5 to October 26, 1774, in which 56 delegates adopted a resolution in opposition to the Coercive Acts document passed by the Second Continental Congress establishes a governing framework for the union of states 27 Amendments to the Constitution
1.) protects the people's right to practice religion, to speak freely, to assemble, to address the government, and of the press to publish
2.) protects the right to own guns
3.) guarantees that the army cannot force homeowners to give them room and board
4.) protects the people from the government improperly taking property, papers, or people, without a valid warrant based on probable cause
5.) protects people from being held for a crime unless they were properly indicted, that they may not be tried twice for the same crime, and that you need not be forced to testify against yourself. It also contains due process guarantees.
6.) guarantees a speedy trial, an impartial jury, and that the accused can confront witnesses against them, and that the accused must be allowed to have a lawyer
7.) guarantees a jury trial in federal court cases
8.) guarantees that punishments will be fair, and not cruel, and that extraordinarily large fines will not be set
9.) simply a statement that other rights aside from those listed may exist, and just because they are not listed doesn't mean they can be violated.
10.) any power not granted to the federal government belongs to the states
11.) says how someone from one state can sue another state
12.) redefines how the President and Vice-President are chosen by the Electoral College
13.) abolished slavery in the U.S.
14.) people had rights on the federal level and on the state level too. Dealt with civil war items
15.) ensured that a person's race could not be used as criteria for voting
16.) authorizes the United States to collect income tax
17.) shifted the choosing of Senators from the state legislatures to the people of the states
18.) banned alcohol
19.) women gained the right to vote
20.) set new start dates for the terms of the Congress and the President
21.) repealed the 18th amendment
22.) set a limit on the number of times a P{resident could be elected- 2 four-year terms
23.) grants the Washington D.C. the right to three electors in Presidential elections
24.) ensured no poll tax
25.) establishes rules for a President who becomes unable to perform his duties while in office
26.) ensures that any person 18 or older may vote
27.) any law that increased the pay of legislatures may not take effect until after an election 3/5 Compromise: African American slaves became worth 3/5 of a person for voting Federalism
4 periods-
Dual: (layered cake) separate and equally powerful national and state government is best
Cooperative: (marble cake) the intertwined relationship between the national, state, and local governments
New: Federal-state relationship proposed by Raegan administration during the 1980's; hallmark is returning administrative powers to the state governments
Progressive: movement that gives state officials significant leeway in acting on issues normally considered national in scope Articles of Confederation created a loose league of friendship between the 13 colonies. It proposed:
A national government with a Congress empowered to make peace, coin money, appoint officers for an army, control the post office, and negotiate with Indian tribes
Each state's retention of its independence and sovereignty, or ultimate authority, to govern within its territories
One vote in the Continental Congress for each state, regardless of its size
The vote of nine states to pass any measure ( a unanimous vote for any amendment)
The selection and payment of delegates to the Congress by their respective state legislatures The Great Compromise:
The final decision of the Constitutional Convention to create a 2-house legislature with the lower house elected by the people and with powers divided between the 2 houses. It also made national law supreme. separation of powers:
A way of dividing the power of the government among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, each staffed separately, with equality and independence of each branch ensured by the Constitution Shays's Rebellion
A 1786 rebellion in which an army of 1,500 disgruntled and angry farmers led by Daniel Shays marched into Springfield, Massachusetts, and forcibly restrained the state court from foreclosing mortgages on their farms. Article I: The Legislative Branch-
establishes a bicameral system: Senate and House of Representatives
qualifications: H- 25 years old, 2 year terms, 7 years resident in the state. S: 30 years old, 6 year terms, 9 years resident in the state.
states the methods of selection of senators and representatives, as well as the system of apportionment among the states to determine membership in the House.
enumerated, or specified, powers. (17 of them)
states cannot make their own money, declare war, or tax goods from other states
Congress has power to establish and maintain an army and navy
all bills must pass through both houses in the same form, then are sent to the President full faith and credit clause:
Section of Article IV of the Constitution that ensures judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in and other state religious tradition:
Reformation- when Martin Luther broke away from the Catholic church, creating many other Protestant sects, like Lutheranism
John Calvin developed Calvinism- belief that stressed the absolute sovereignty of God, possible redemption, and eternal damnation for unrepentant sinners.
Reformation period followed by period called Enlightenment-philosophers and scientists argued that the word could be improved by using human reason, science, and religious toleration.
Puritans were persecuted Protestants who rejected the role of the church in England. A specific group, called pilgrims, came to the New World to get away from such persecutions.
They believed heavily in their religion and believed they were charged by the Old Testament to create "a city on a hill" that would become an example of righteousness. They enforced strict code of authority and obedience, while also stressing importance of individualism. religious tolerance grows:
King Charles I granted a Catholic's son a charter to establish a Catholic colony in the New World- area became known as Maryland.
King Charles II granted William Penn a charter giving him ownership of a lot of land north of Maryland- known as Pennsylvania. Penn was a Quaker who also eventually purchased the land of present day Delaware. Here he launched what he called "the holy experiment," attracting other persecuted Europeans, including German Mennonites and Lutherans and French Huguenots. The survival of Penn's colony is mostly due to its ethnic and religious diversity. Becoming Americans:
needed a form of government and divine God
beginnings of government; the formal vehicle through which policies are made and affairs of state are conducted
local self-governing
Virginia House of Burgesses- 22 elected officials were chosen to make the laws of the colonists
In the Massachusetts Bay Colony, all church members were permitted the right to participate in town meetings. This allowed the colonists to keep their religious and cultural values at the center of their governing process individualism:
highly valued by puritans
all individuals are deemed rational and fair and endowed with unalienable rights religious freedom:
religious conflicts have brought many settlers to the New World searching for opportunities to practice their religious faith. It didnt always involve religious tolerance. The clashes within settlements and colonies had the people agreeing that the new nation had to be founded on notions of religious freedom. establishing justice :
allows individuals to abide by a common set of principles. Societies adhering to the rule of law allow for the rational dispensing of justice by acknowledged legal authorities.
trial by jury, informed of charges against them, tried in a courtroom presided by an impartial judge. insuring domestic tranquility:
the passage of legislation giving the national government nearly unprecedented ability to ferret out potential threats show the degree the government takes seriously
Department of Homeland Security
police forces, national guards, troops providing for common defense:
provide for defense of citizens against threats of foreign aggression.
Constitution calls for President to be commander in chief of the armed forces, and Congress is given authority to raise an army
defense budget continues to be a considerable and often controversial proportion of all federal outlays securing blessings of liberty
free to criticize the government and to petition it when they disagree with its policies.
right to protest actions of the Congress and the president racial and ethnic composition:
American population is constantly affected by the arrival of immigrants. First were Europeans fleeing from religious persecution, then slaves from Africa. Next were the Chinese to work on railroads, and then Irish Catholics escaping the potato famine. There were also more Europeans, and eventually came the Hispanics. Aging:
It used to be that persons under the age of twenty outnumbered those 65 and older, but that is no longer true. There have been changes in patterns of fertility, life expectancy, and immigration.
An aging population places costly demands on the government, and caused a problem with the working force as well. It could potentially result in dramatic cuts on elderly benefits and increased taxes for younger workers. religious beliefs:
many of the first settlers came to America to pursue their religious beliefs free from governmental intervention.
most identified with the Christian religion
they viewed the Indians' belief systems, including multiple gods, to be savage and unholy.
Christian values permeated American social and political systems.
Other religions have also taken root in the U.S., causing different political and social demands. regional growth and expansion:
Settlers from the Virginia colony southward were largely concerned about commerce. Those seeking religious freedom populated many settlements in the North.

The West was first populated by those seeking free land and then by those seeking dreams of gold. It is seen as "wild." some move there to avoid city life, others are interested in water rights

Those who live in rural areas are much more conservative than those who live in large cities. Family and Family size:
In the past, gender roles were clearly defined. Women did housework and men worked in the fields. Large families were imperative, and children were cheap labor. Industrialization put a dent in the size of American families. Children were no longer needed to work for the survival of the household, so couples began to put a limit on the sizes of their families. In 1949, many people thought 4 or more children was the "ideal" family size, but even more said that 0 to 2 was best. By 2008, only 70% of children lived with both parents.
There is a declining marriage rate, lower birthrate affect the kinds of demands placed on the government by the people. problems with ideological labels:
some people consider themselves liberal, when perhaps they have mostly conservative views and beliefs.
libertarians- believe in limited government and decry governmental interference with personal liberties. trade and taxation:
mercantilism- an economic theory designed to increase a nation's wealth through the development of commercial industry and a favorable balance of trade.
to raise money to pay for wars as well as the upkeep of the colonists, taxes were put into place, such as the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act. Formal Methods of Amending
2-stage amendment process-
1.) a vote of 2/3 of the members in both houses of Congress, or
2.) a vote of 2/3 of the state legislatures specifically requesting Congress to call a national convention to propose amendments. Ratifying the Constitution:
Must occur one of 2 ways:
1.) a favorable vote in 3/4 of the state legislatures;
2.) a favorable vote in specially called ratifying conventions in 3/4 of the states Informal methods of Amending the Constitution:
-judicial interpretation
-cultural & social change Writing the Constitution:
Constitution- a document establishing the structure, functions, and limitations of a government
represents an economic document drawn with superb skill by men whose property interests were immediately at stake. Article III:Judiciary-
establishes judges
Supreme Court is highest court in US
judges serve for life, or until they want to retire
guarantees trial by jury in criminal court
defines the crime of treason Article IV: States rights-
-all states will honor the laws of other states
-citizens of one state are treated equally and fairly like all citizens of another
-if a person accused of a crime in one state flees to another will be returned to the state that person fled from
-how new states come into the Nation
-control of federal lands
-ensures a "Power by the People" government
-guarantees that the federal government will protect the states Article V: How to change the Constitution-
representatives, senators, and 2/3 of the states must vote on the change Article VI: Concerns the US
guarantees that the Constitution and all laws and treaties of the US to be the supreme law of the country
requires all officers of the US and of the states to swear an oath of allegiance to the US and the Constitution when taking office Article VII: Explained how the Constitution was agreed to-
of the original 13 states in the US, 9 had to accept the Constitution before it would officially go into effect http://ipad.io/c14b FEDERALISM SEG. #2 Privileges and Immunities: part of Article IV of the constitution guaranteeing that the citizens of each state are afforded the same rights as citizens of all other states Systems! federal: system of government where the national govt and state govt share power and derive all authority from the people Confederate: type of govt where the national govt derives its powers from the states; a league of independent states Unitary Systems: system of govt where the local and regional govt derive all authority from a strong national govt Nullification: the purported right of a state to declare void a federal law National powers under the Constitution:
-authorities to coin money
-conduct foreign relations
-provide for an army and navy
-declare war Powers! State Powers: each state appoints electors to vote for president, each state has a govt that represents the citizens of the state. Reserved Powers: ability to legislate for the public health, safety, and morals of their citizens
Interstate compacts: contracts between states that carry the force of law; generally now used as a tool to address multistate policy concerns The Congress:

Reasons for a Bicameral Legislature:

-Drawing on historical experience-British system along with many other colonial and state legislatures were bicameral.
-fulfilling the Connecticut Compromise- House of Representatives based on population, senate has equal representation in each state
-implementing federalism- House represents interests of the people, senate represents interests of the states. fragmented power- checking majority interests while protecting minority interests. Slows legislative process, allowing for careful deliberation and compromise

Elections-House always elected by eligible voters. Senators were originally chosen by state legislature, due to 17th Amendment, now elected by voters in each state

Apportionment: no exact size or House of Reps, but size shall be apportioned or distributed among the states based on their respective populations

Reapportionment: Congress reapportions, or reallocates, House seats after a census taken at 10-year intervals

Districts- Constitution does not define or discuss congressional districts. All seats in House would be filled from single-member districts. law assigned each state legislature the responsibility of drawing the boundary lines of its congressional districts

Gerrymandering:the legislative process by which the majority party in each state legislature redraws congressional districts to ensure the maximum number of seats for its candidates.

Supreme Court Limitation on Gerrymandering:
-one person, one vote- gave cities and suburbs greater representation in Congress
-congressional districts favored less-populous rural areas of state Congress concurrent powers: shared by both national and state SEG. #3 Article II: The Executive-
-creates the job of President
-both President and Vice President serve for 4 years
Presidents elected by the Electoral
-must be 35 and born in the USA
-Pres leads armed forces
-makes treaties with other nations
-has a Cabinet of advisers to aide him
-give yearly speech to the nation
-ensures the laws of the US are carried out
- meets with Ambassadors and other heads of state from other nations
-explains how to kick the pres from office, called impeachment ALIEN DHS Categorical Grants- made for specific, carefully defined purposes.

Block Grants- made for a broadly defined purpose.

New Federalism

Devolution Revolution- movement to transfer responsibilities of governing from the federal government to state and local governments

Unfunded Mandates- requires state and local governments to provide services without providing resources for these services

Bush and Federalism

Judicial Federalism

Progressive Federalism Tenth Amendment: Powers not delegated to the US by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people

Sixteenth Amendment:authorized congress to enact a national income tax

Seventeenth Amendment: made senators directly elected by the people, removing their selection from state legislatures Supremacy Clause: the federal government, in exercising any of the powers enumerated in the Constitution, must prevail over any conflicting or inconsistent state exercise of power.

How Congress is Organized

The House of Representatives:
-larger than Senate
-more formal structure and governed by stricter rules
-Speaker of House:
-presides over pres
-overseas House business
-stands second in line for presidential succession
-other House leaders:
-majority leader is elected leader that controls the House of Reps
-minority leader is elected leader of party with 2nd highest number of elected representatives
both parties have whips who maintain close contact with their members and try to ensure party unity on important votes

The Senate:
-smaller and less formally organized than House
-VP is pres of Senate and may only vote to break a tie
-other Senate leaders:
-president pro tempore presides over senate when VP is absent. (member of maj. party with longest service)
-majority leader is true leader of senate.

The Committee System: important in both houses but especially in House of Reps
-standing : permanent, focus on legislation in a particular area, all bills referred here, divided into subcommittees:
-select-temporary for specific purpose. formed to conduct investigation.
-joint-both houses, similar to select, focus on public attention
-conference-temporary to resolve between House and Senate

House Rules Committee

House Ways and Means Committee Differences between the House and Senate-Size and Terms: House- 25 years old minimum, 2 year terms, at least an American citizen for 7 years, total of 435 members (based on population- 1:650,000). Senate: At lease 30 years old, 6 year terms, American citizen for at least 9 years, and there is a total of 100; 2 for each state. Special Powers-House of Reps:-initiates revenue bills-brings charges of impeachment against pres, VP,and civil officers of the U.S.-chooses pres when electoral college is deadlocked.Senate:-ratifies treaties negotiated by the pres-possesses the sole power to try or judge impeachment cases-confirms judicial appointments: US attorneys, federal judges, US Supreme Court Justices-confirms executive appointments:cabinet heads,director of FBI, US attorney general Congressional Elections-incumbents usually win

Incumbency-single most important factor in determining the outcome of congressional elections

Incumbency Advantages-ability to raise more campaign contributions than their challengers
-better known to voters
-constituent service
-franking privilege:right of members of congress to mail newsletters to their constituents at the governments expense
-gerrymandering Committee Chairs and the Seniority System:
-committee chairs call meetings, schedule hearings, hire staff, select committee chairs
-chosen by a seniority system which majority party member with most continuous service automatically became chair
-chairs in both houses are now elected positions, but seniority is still the norm for selections

The Legislative Process

-5,000+ bills a year are introduced
-125, or 2.5% get made into law
-legislative process is lengthy with many obstacles

Creating Bills:
-anyone can write a bill but most are not written by a member of Congress
-most bills originate in the executive branch
-business, labor, agriculture, and othe interest groups draft bills
-only members of congress can introduce a bill

Sources of Bills

Committee Action:
-House and Senate have parallel processes
-bills assigned a number then sent to appropriate committee, usually referred by committee chair to a subcommittee for study, language, hearings, revisions, and approval
-most bills die in committees
-bills approved by a subcommittee are returned to full committee, where members can mar up or add items to the bill
-committees can reject bill or send it to House or Senate floor with positive recommendation Extradition clause:part of Article IV of the constitution that requires states to extradite, or return, criminals to states where they have been convicted or are to stand trial McCulloch v. Maryland: supreme court upheld the power of the national govt and denied the right of a state to tax the federal bank using the constitution’s supremacy clause. The court’s broad interpretation of the necessary and proper clause paved the way for later rulings upholding expansive federal powers Floor Action:House Action-House Rules Committee gives bill a rule, placing it on the legislative calendar, allowing a specified time for debate, and determining if any amendments will be allowedSenate Action-members able to speak on floor as long as they wish, filibuster- delaying or preventing action using long speeches, only stopped if 60 members vote for cloture to cut off debate, senator may ask to be informed before a particular bill is brought to the floor- called a holdConference Action- bill passed in different versions by both House and senate, conference committee formed to work out differences, then returned to each chamber to vote onOversight:congressional review of the activities of an executive agency, department, or office. senate confirms heads and presidential appointments to the federal courts-methods include: -setting guidelines for new agencies -holding hearings and conducting investigations -using budget control -reorganizing an agency -evaluating an agency's programsForeign Policy Action: constitutional division of power-congress has power to declare war. senate has power to ratify treaties-war powers resolutionAppointments-pres has power to appoint senior agency heads and subheads. enables pres to exercise influence over an agency. power is limited. senate approves appointments.Other Powers and Roles of CongressPower Checks the Congress has on other branches of government Gibbons v. Ogden: the supreme court upheld broad congressional power to regulate interstate commerce. The court’s broad interpretation of the constitution’s commerce clause paved the way for later rulings upholding expansive federal powers Dred Scott and Federalism: the supreme court concluded that the US congress lacked the constitutional authority to bar slavery in the territories. This decision narrowed the scope of national power, while it enhanced that of the states Batimore: the supreme court ruled that the due process clause of the fifth amendment did not apply to the actions of states. This decision limirron v. Balted the Bill of Rights to the actions of Congress alone Bill of Attainder: a law declaring an act illegal without a judicial trial Ex post facto law: law that makes an act punishable as a crime even if the action was legal at the time it was committed Full faith and credit clause: section of Article IV of the constitution that ensures judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in any other state Dual Federalism: the belief that having separate and equally powerful levels of govt is the best arrangement SEG #4 SEG #5 Presidential Qualifications and Terms of Office: natural born citizen of US,35+ years old, resident of US for 14+ years
Executive Power
Executive Privilege:the president's power to refuse to disclose confidential information
Appointment Power: constitution authorizes president to appoint ambassadors, public ministers and consuls, judges of Supreme Court and other officials with advise and consent of the Senate
Removal Power: president has power to remove many of his appointees at will
The Cabinet: presidential advisers who head 15 executive departments
The Kitchen Cabinet
The Executive Office of the President (OMB:office of management and budget-, NSC: national security council- advise president on Am military and foreign affairs, CEA)
The White House Staff: personal assistants to the president. power derived from their personal relationship to the president. no independent legal authority.
Legislative Powers

The Veto Power:the president's constitutional power to reject a bill passed by Congress. Congress may override veto with a 2/3 majority in each chamber

Line-Item Veto:the power to veto specific dollar amounts or line items from major congressional spending bills.

Working with Congress
Divided Government
Formal Constitutional Powers
Informal Constitutional Powers
The Role of Chief Diplomat:
The Role of Commander in Chief
Granting Reprieves and Pardons
Public Support
Presidential Approval Levels
The President and the Media

Key Features of a Bureaucracy
The Spoils System
The Pendleton Act
Federal and State Employees
Cabinet Departments
Independent Regulatory Agencies
Government Corporations
Independent Executive Agencies
Regulation Making Process

The President and the Bureaucracy

Appointments:pres has power to appoint senior agency heads and subheads- enables pres to exercise influence over an agency. pres power is limited- senate has power to approve pres appointments

Executive Orders: a directive, order or regulation issued by the pres. based on constitutional or statutory authority and have the force of law

Economic Powers:pres may use OMB to cut or add to an agency's budget. Congress has sole power to appropriate funds to an agency

Divided Authority:US has a system of divided supervision in which both the president and congress exercise authority over the federal bureaucracy. system of divided supervision creates checks and balances while at the same time often encouraging agencies to play one branch of govt against the other

Oversight: Congress has responsibility to exercise legislative oversight by:
exercising budgetary control by setting aside funds for each agency
holding hearings and conducting investigations
reorganizing an agency
setting new guidelines for an agency
spreading out responsibilities in order to prevent any one agency from becoming too powerful

Iron Triangles: an alliance among an administrative agency, an interest group, and a congressional committee. each member provides key services, info, or policy for others

Issue Networks:a network that includes policy experts, media pundits, congressional staff members, and interest groups who regularly debate an issue Advesarial-the court provides an arena for 2 parties to brings their conflicts before an impartial arbiter, or judge. plaintiff brings a charge, and the defendant is the one being charged
Passive-federal judges are restrained by the constitution to deciding actual disputes or cases rather than hypothetical ones. the judiciary is thus a pasive branch of govt that depends on others to take the initiative.
Jurisdiction and types- courts authority to hear a case: original-case first heard, appellate-cases brought to them on appeal from a lower court, exclusive- cases heard only in certain courts, concurrent- cases heard in either a federal or a state court
District Courts- 94 district courts under 700 judges
Courts of Appeals
Specialized Courts
Marbury v. Madison-established judicial review, and it overrules state courts
Nomination: competence, ideology and policy preferences, rae, ethnicity, and gender
Cases of Original Jurisdiction
Writ of certiorari
Rule of four
The Solicitor General-
Filing Briefs
Oral Arguments and that
Discussion and Voting
Types of Opinions- majority opinion:"opinion of the court" law of the land, concurring opinion:
Stare Decisis- "let the decision stand"
Judicial Restraint- SC should precedent to decide cases and defer to the elected institutions of government
Judicial Activism-fed courts must correct injustices when other branches or states refuse to
Public Opinion
Strict Constructionism
Loose Constructionism
Amicus Curae Briefs
Writ of Habeas Corpus-court order directing that a prisoner be brought before a court, officers show cause why prisoner should not be released-prevents unjust arrests and imprisonments
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