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Intelligence and Individual Differences
Transcript of Intelligence and Individual Differences
Intelligence is a socially constructed concept.
However, we tend to define it as
a mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
Testing and Individual Differences
Intelligence tests are a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes
and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores
But are they accurate?
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill (like drawing or computation)
...But what about
(recognize them in faces, music, stories)
(to predict them and how they change and blend)
(to know how to express them in varied situations)
to enable adaptive or creative thinking
Einstein: Born better or made better?
Highly educated people tend to die with more synapses
(roughly 17% more) than their those who are less educated.
Higher intelligence scores
have also been linked with
more grey matter
in areas known to be involved in
memory, attention, and language
Those who perceive very quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests
(particularly on tests based on perceptual rather than verbal problem solving skills) ...
We get the term
Aside from intelligence tests, we also have ability tests.
Achievement tests reflect what we have learned
aptitude tests intend to predict our ability to learn a new skill
Aptitude and intelligence scores are very closely correlated
Sample items from the WAIS subtest
intelligence test performance has increased in every country since 1918-1989
, recent data indicates that
this trend may have leveled off
or may actually be
What We Need For An Accurate Assessment
the extent to which a test gives
, as assessed by the
consistency of scores on two halves of the test
, or upon
extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
the extent to which a test
samples the behavior that is of interest.
the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict
(it assessed by computing
between test scores and the behavior)
How stable is intelligence?
When 80 year old Scots were retested using an intelligence test that they had taken as 11 year olds, their scores across seven decades correlated +.66
just being labeled
as "gifted" or "ungifted" has a
tremendous impact on performance
The most genetically similar people have the most similar intelligence scores.
Genes and the environment work together
only demonstrates the
extent to which a trait is explainable by genetics; not the extent to which the trait will affect behavior
in an individual or group outside of environmental influences.
Remember: IQ tests can be biased!
In regards to intelligence, even if the variation between members within a group reflects genetic differences, the average difference between groups may be wholly due to the environment.
Imagine that seeds from the same mixture are sown in different soils. Although height differences within each window box will be genetic, the height difference between the two groups will be environmental.
(a self-confirming concern that
you will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype of a group
that you belong to) is another example of this bias.