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Intelligence and Individual Differences

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by

Miss Schwinge

on 13 April 2016

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Transcript of Intelligence and Individual Differences

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence
Neurologically Measurable?
Intelligence
Intelligence is a socially constructed concept.
However, we tend to define it as
a mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
.
Assessing Intelligence
Intelligence:
Testing and Individual Differences

Intelligence tests are a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes
and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores
But are they accurate?
Savant syndrome:
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill (like drawing or computation)
...But what about
emotional intelligence?
-
perceive emotions
(recognize them in faces, music, stories)
-
understand emotions
(to predict them and how they change and blend)
-
manage emotions
(to know how to express them in varied situations)
-
use emotions
to enable adaptive or creative thinking
Einstein: Born better or made better?
Highly educated people tend to die with more synapses
(roughly 17% more) than their those who are less educated.
Higher intelligence scores
have also been linked with
more grey matter
in areas known to be involved in
memory, attention, and language
.
Perceptual Speed:
Those who perceive very quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests
(particularly on tests based on perceptual rather than verbal problem solving skills) ...
Ageist?
We get the term
IQ
from
intelligence quotient
IQ
=
mental age
chronological age
x 100
Aside from intelligence tests, we also have ability tests.
Achievement tests reflect what we have learned
, whereas
aptitude tests intend to predict our ability to learn a new skill
.
Aptitude and intelligence scores are very closely correlated
Sample items from the WAIS subtest
Although
intelligence test performance has increased in every country since 1918-1989
, recent data indicates that
this trend may have leveled off
or may actually be
reversing
What We Need For An Accurate Assessment
Reliability
:
the extent to which a test gives
consistent results
, as assessed by the
consistency of scores on two halves of the test
, or upon
retesting
.
Validity
:
the
extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
Content Validity
:
the extent to which a test
samples the behavior that is of interest.
Predictive Validity
:
the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict
(it assessed by computing
the correlation
between test scores and the behavior)
How stable is intelligence?
When 80 year old Scots were retested using an intelligence test that they had taken as 11 year olds, their scores across seven decades correlated +.66
Remember to
be wary
of the
self-fulfilling prophecy
effect! Often,
just being labeled
as "gifted" or "ungifted" has a
tremendous impact on performance
.
The most genetically similar people have the most similar intelligence scores.
Remember:
Genes and the environment work together
. Also,
heritability
only demonstrates the
extent to which a trait is explainable by genetics; not the extent to which the trait will affect behavior
in an individual or group outside of environmental influences.
Gardner's
Multiple Intelligences
Remember: IQ tests can be biased!
In regards to intelligence, even if the variation between members within a group reflects genetic differences, the average difference between groups may be wholly due to the environment.
Imagine that seeds from the same mixture are sown in different soils. Although height differences within each window box will be genetic, the height difference between the two groups will be environmental.
Stereotype threat
(a self-confirming concern that
you will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype of a group
that you belong to) is another example of this bias.
Full transcript