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Chapter 4: The Ojibwe & Chapter 5: The Fur Trade
Transcript of Chapter 4: The Ojibwe & Chapter 5: The Fur Trade
Traditionally, the Ojibwe have referred to themselves as "Anishinaabe"
This means "original People"
Get it? Got it? Good?
Ojibwe has also been previously spelled the following ways
The origin of Ojibwe is unknown.
HOWEVER, The Ojibwe language known as "Anishinaabemowin" is one of the most widespread of North American Indian Languages
Ojibwe are the largest groups of Natives in North America
They live in Minnesota, Northern Wisconsin, Upper Peninsula of Michigan, Ontario, Manitoba, Sakatchewan, North Dakota
During the 1600s and the early 1700s, the Ojibwe formed alliances with French, Dutch, and British fur traders
Trade brought in:
Metal utensils that replaced those made from wood, stone, and clay.
This helped the processes of making maple sap and drying rice easier
Metal Pots lasted longer
The OJIBWE have arrived!
In what is now Northeastern Minnesota, in the 1600s the Ojibwe made their home in the lands surrounding the Great Lakes
The Ojibwe lived in villages and cool pine forests, surrounded by relatives and neighbors
Ojibwe hunted, fished, harvested wild rice, and made sugar from maple sap
The Ojibwe lived in "houses" called Wigwams
Frames were covered with woven mats or sheets of birchbark
Birchbark was also used to make canoes
The Ojibwe migrated from their original home near the Atlantic Ocean to Minnesota
Like the Dakota, The Ojibwe use oral history as an important teaching tool
The reasoning for the Ojibwe moving West is actually only found in a story
The story goes something like this:
7 Prophets appeared before the Ojibwe and told them that they would leave their homes in search of a far off land where food "grows on water"
The Ojibwe finally found this food that grows on water near the western banks of Lake Superior and this food was...drum roll please
Let's dig a bit deeper into the Ojibwe
The Ojibwe have always lived near lakes
During the warm months of the year, Ojibwe women did most of the fishing
During the cold months the men did most of the fishing
Women and children working at the Sugar camp --> Getting sap to turn into maple sugar
Men, women, and children shared in the task of making canoes
Summer was a time for feasts, dancing and sports
The Ojibwe played lots and lots of LaCrosse
Summer was also a time when women planted and tended crops, especially corn
They also raised pumpkins, squash, and potatoes
They also picked strawberries, juneberries, raspberries, blackberries, cherries, grapes, cranberries, and blueberries
The men rarely hunted in the summer
Men traveled in the summer to meet neighboring tribes and engage in trading
The big task in the fall was harvest the wild rice
Those who did not take part in the rice harvest kept busy with other tasks
Men hunted the ducks and geese that flocked to the rice marshes
Men and women caught fish
The Ojibwe prepared all year for the winter
They created a supply of wild rice, sugar, and dried fish
However, men did go out and hunt for moose, deer, and elk
Ojibwe custom was to share food with neighbors who did not have enough
During the winter, the men and boys hunted while the women and girls cooked all the meals
Women and girls also made jackets, leggings, moccasins and other clothes from the animal hides
Winter was also a time for fun
Sledding on tree bark toboggans
Butterfly Hide and Seek
Children were taught never to hurt a butterfly. It was considered good luck that if you stayed quiet enough that a butterfly would trust you and land on you
One person would try to find the others hiding while singing "Butterfly, Butterfly, show me where to go"
It was a noisy game that required four Moccasins, a pebble, and a stick
Two teams: The finders and the Keepers
One player from each team was the "singer." Their job was to encourage their own team while jeering the other team
The Keeper: Their job was to hide the pebble in one of the moccasins while
The Finder: Their job was to find the pebble
Many rounds were played and a complex scoring system was used
The "fall asleep" game
Someone would sing a silly song and then yell "SEP"
If someone made a noise during the the quiet time they lost
The person would pick up the song again and the game would continue until the early morning
A hacky sac like ball was hit in the air with the palm of your hand
The object was to not let the Pokean hit the ground
Throwing arrows/darts through a swinging hoop
Similar to horseshoes
A hoop was set on the ground and an awl was thrown towards the hoop
Objective #1 was to get the awl in the hoop and Objective #2 was to get the awl to stand straight up
Exactly like hockey except "sudden death overtime" rules were used
Similar to Lacrosse except a double ball is used (two buffalo hair stuff corn husk balls are tied together)
Sticks are used that don't have nets on the end
CUP & PIN
Similar to cup and ball except you need to "spear" the hide on the pin after throwing the hide in the air
Do you remember this?
In the early 1600s, Indians from the East (primarily the Ottawa Natives) arrived in Ojibwe territory and brought forth things the Ojibwe have never seen before
For the first time the Ojibwe saw blankets and clothes made of woven fabric, pots and tools made from hard metal, and powerful weapons that shot deadly lead balls through the air
The Natives from the East claimed they got these goods from strangers that hailed from France, England and Holland
These "strangers" were willing to trade their goods for animal furs
The Ojibwe highly valued the items that the Europeans offered
Metal Ax: Chopped hours and even days off the time needed to build a wigwam, make a canoe, or gather firewood
Brass & tin Kettles: Replaced clay pots
Clothes: No more need to kill animals for warmth
The Europeans prized the furs because:
The wealthy class of Europe turned the furs into hats and coats
So...The Ojibwe and the Europeans have a good thing going with this whole trade business. HOWEVER
The Ojibwe were running out of fur-bearing animals in the Minnesota area
BALL SO HARD
OJIBWE WANNA FIND ME
Well...the Ojibwe start to move west which meant they were now hunting on Dakota territory
Now the Dakota and the Ojibwe each former alliances with either the French or the British
The Europeans encouraged warfare among the Indians whenever they believed it would help them get more furs
But when the fighting threatened to cut off possible trade routes, the Europeans pressured the Indians to make peace
By 1670, the tension over hunting grounds reached a high
The Dakota commenced attacks on Ojibwe villages
Ojibwe warriors were ambushed when they left their village in search for food
HUGE battles broke out
Eventually, the Dakota and Ojibwe grew tired of war
1679: The Dakota and Ojibwe negotiate a peace treaty near present day Duluth
The peace treaty resulted in the following things:
The French continued to receive furs from the Ojibwe
The Ojibwe were given permission to collect furs in the heart of the Dakota homeland
The Dakota were now able to partake in the same trade that the Ojibwe and far east Natives had experienced
The Ojibwe and Dakota experienced very peaceful relations
They visited with one another
It was not uncommon for a Dakota and a Ojibwe to get married
The Ojibwe taught the Dakota how to build better canoes
The Dakota taught the Ojibwe how to hunt for bison
At this point in history, the Europeans were only occasionally visiting the Great Lakes region in search for furs...But that was about to change
CHAPTER 5: THE FUR TRADE
The First Europeans to explore the St. Lawrence River, the Great Lakes, and ultimately, Minnesota were French explorers, missionaries, and fur traders
oui oui I speak French
Explorer: a person who explores an unfamiliar area
Missionary: Someone sent on a religious mission to promote Christianity in a foreign country
Fur trader: Someone who acquires and sells fur
Exploration led to the discovery of many bodies of water and their tributaries
Travelers kept journals, drew maps, and wrote books about their journeys
HOWEVER; most explorers never mentioned the fact that Natives guided them through the area!
The natives did intentionally keep Europeans away from important sites
Lake Minnetonka was not discovered by Europeans till 1852
The Source of the Mississippi was not discovered by Europeans until 1832
GIVE US THE FUR!
One of the main reasons for exploration was to find natives to trade goods for furs
Canoes and other transportation methods were critical to the fur trade
Montreal canoes were the largest canoes and reached lengths of 40 feet long!
These canoes carried up to 4 tons, 12 men, and their supplies
By comparison, a Ojibwe Canoe were about 16 feet long
From the late 1600s to the mid 1800s, beaver hats were popular status symbols for men and women in Europe
Mercury was used in the production of beaver hats
When Mercury is absorbed into the skin is often causes severe neurological problems
hence the name "Mad as a hatter"
The North American Fur Trade was under control by the Dutch, then the French, and finally the British
Lets read about it in our Northern Lights Textbook
Turn to Page 56 in your textbook and look at the illustration
A steersman and a bowsman made about $13,500 a year (2003 dollars) and a middleman made about $8,000 a year (2003 dollars)
Continue to look at the picture on page 56 and try to find the woman
Now turn to page 60 and try to find a the woman in the illustration in the bottom left hand corner
This woman is Frances Anne Hopkins and she is also the artist of these paintings
1861-1869: She accompanied her husband as he traveled throughout the Great Lakes
DEMONSTRATION: Lets see if you can row this beast
Trade is apart of every culture!
The basics of trading
Bring goods from a place where they are abundant to a place where they are scarce.
Trade for what you want / need...WHAM BAM THANK YOU MA'AM
Before Europeans came to the Americas, a chunk of copper might be traded for a bunch of sharp arrowheads or maybe a stylish buffalo robe.
At times you may GIVE special good to a neighboring group in order to befriend them
But for the most part, you might trade for new kinds of food or a new type of seed that would grow better
Basically you are trading for tools and materials that made life better!
The trade network connected Native Americans from all across North America
In Minnesota, archaeologists have found flint from North Dakota, copper from Lake Michigan, and seashells from the ocean
For Europeans, the goal of trade was to make $$$
Furs could be sold for a lot of money in Europe (if you have something that people can't get themselves that = $$$)
In Europe, making a profit was what mattered in the trading business
In North America, the Ojibwe and Dakota traded for things they wanted or needed - NOT to make a profit
When these two worlds meet, the fur trade occurs
Having the basic understanding of why people trade will make Chapter 5 a breeze
Beginnings of Exploration & Trade
Many Europeans came to North America to find new resources that they could gather and sell for a profit back in Europe.
When they arrived in what is now eastern Canada they found a place with people, with timber, and with animals
They prized the animals for the fur!
In the 1600s, French traders came to trade with American Indians in exchange for furs, the Frenchmen offered blankets, jewelry and useful metal goods.
Before long, this exchange of goods grew into a big business where fur traders were setting up trading centers around the Great Lakes
I WANT, YOU WANT
The Fur trade worked because the Natives had things that the Europeans wanted and vise-versa
Many Dakota & Ojibwe wanted European goods made of woven fabric because they required less work than making leather clothing
oh it was comfy too!
Red Dyes provided a new way to decorate hides and clothing
And of course, beaver furs were wanted by the Europeans because they were a sign of the rich and powerful
More than Furs
Besides furs, Europeans needed food, labor, and tools.
The Europeans were never able to carry enough food to last them through the winter.
Europeans traded for wild rice, meat, and maple sugar
They also traded for canoes and hired interpreters and guides
The Business of Trading
European businessmen started to form companies that would profit from the fur trade
The would acquire furs in North America and sell those furs in Paris and London
Fur trading companies started to expand their connections to the global market
Beads that came from Italy and Germany were traded with Natives
Red Dyes from China and India
"Company Men" even went as far as to marry Dakota or Ojibwe women so that they cold strengthen relationships to support business