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Age of Exploration

Chapter 16

Tim Williams

on 15 August 2014

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Transcript of Age of Exploration

Amerigo Vespucci
Prince Henry
Bartolomeu Dias
Vasco da Gama
Taught others about currents, wind patterns, & climates. Nicknamed- "The Navigator"
Famous for "claiming" to find India...
Sailed around the Cape of Good Hope
The New World was named after me!
Named the Pacific Ocean
Made multiple successful trips to India
Exchange of products, plants, animals, &
diseases from the New World to the Old World
Idea stating that
a country's gov't should do all it could to increase the country's wealth



Measured in....

Another way for Mercantilists to acquire more wealth....
Favorable balance of trade

= more goods are being sold to foreign countries than your country is buying



on imports to keep out foreign goods


for businesspeople to start new industries

Gain control of overseas resources

[raw materials / precious metals]
Why would Europeans want to establish colonies?
Reasons colonist settled...
Reasons Gov't wanted
to settle


Raw Materials

Religious Freedom

What ways could an explorer get his expedition funded?
Bank Loan

Joint-stock company

Write a speech to persuade a banker, individual investor, or a monarch to fund an expedition.
Cartography Challenge
You are a European Cartographer and the King of Spain [or Portugal] has hired you to make a map of the newly discovered territories.
Items you MUST include on your Map:
Compass Rose
Trade goods
People from the region
Sailing route
Atlantic Slave Trade
Who was enslaving the people of Africa?
Europeans & Other Africans
Problems that slave ship captains faced...
Slavery in Africa not new
Plantation farming escalates demand for slaves (sugar cane)
10 million survived the 3 month journey
Entire villages and generation were wiped out
Many faced a life of torture and abuse in the New World
Why Africans??

Slave Trade Visual Discovery
For Each image you will have about 45 seconds to explain :

What is going on in the image

If you were IN the picture what would you

What the image makes you feel
Explain how the AZTEC EMPIRE fell.

[Cite evidence from your text]

Explain how the INCAN EMPIRE fell.

[Cite Evidence from your text]
Period of history where Europeans explored and mapped the world, establishing links with Africa, Asia, and the Americas.
Europeans searched for new trading partners, new trade goods, and new trade routes.
Led to the rise of colonial empires
Why Europeans Begin Exploring

Silk Road Blocked
Nations are wealthier and can fund exploration
Technological advancements
Technological Advancements

Advancements in Navigation
–shows north at any time
- used to chart location
- created more accurate maps and sea charts
Lateen Sails
- triangular sail mounted at an angle
- made ships more maneuverable
The Caravel
- small, highly maneuverable two or three
mast lateen-rigged ship
The Carrack
- Three or four mast sailing ship
- Has both lateen and square rigged sails
-Roomy enough to carry provisions for
long voyages.
Advancement in Ships
Motives for European Exploration

- the hope to convert
Muslims and others to
- to bring fame and prestige to
themselves and their countries
- to increase their wealth

Access to Silk Road blocked when Ottoman empire captures Constantinople
European rulers began to search for a sea route to Asia

Constantinople Falls
Spices were used to flavor and preserve foods
Symbol of Status in Europe
Most Common Spices: black pepper, cinnamon, cumin, nutmeg, ginger, and cloves

Silk Clothes

Importance of Spices
Trade Before the Age of Exploration

Land trade route from Europe to Asia
Travel was dangerous and lengthy
Trade goods included spices, perfumes, and silk

The Three G’s
Portugal Begins European Exploration

1. Prince Henry
2. Bartholomew Dias
3. Vasco da Gama

Prince of Portugal
Nicknamed the "Navigator"
Responsible for training and funding exploreres that led to European maritime trade with other continents
Began the Age of Exploration

First European to sail around the tip of Africa in 1488
Cape of Good Hope – name given to Southern tip of Africa
Opens direct sea route with India for trade

First European to sail directly from Europe to India
Gives Portugal claim to Spice Trade and will greatly boost its economy

Christopher Columbus

Proposed to reach the East Indies by sailing westward
During his first voyage in 1492, he landed in the Bahamas
Additional voyages (1493, 1498, and 1502)
His voyages led to the first lasting European contact with the Americas
Was an Italian explorer who first demonstrated that Columbus had not reached Asia, but instead an entirely separate landmass
Continents of America are named after him

Bartholomew Dias
Prince Henry
Vasco da Gama
1. Christopher Columbus
2. Amerigo Vespucci
3. Hernando Cortes
4. Francisco Pizarro
5. Ferdinand Magellen
Spanish Claims to the America's
Amerigo Vespucci
Hernando Cortés

Conquered the Aztec Empire and brought Mexico under Spain’s control.

Treaty of Tordesillas

Expanded from settlements in the Caribbean to include Mexico, Central America, most of South America, the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of North America, and what today is the Southwestern U.S.

Bartolome de las Casas exposed the mistreatment of natives by greedy conquistadores, leading to a shift in governing policies in the Spanish Empire

Crown grants conquerors right to use native labor and collect tribute
In return, conquerors are to protect, pay and supervise the religious needs of the natives – did this happen?
Replaced encomienda system after its abuses were exposed
Served as regional civil and military governors for king
The Church
Spanish crown’s authority over Church
Mass conversion of natives

The Spanish Empire: Administration

Francisco Pizarro
Spanish conquistador
Conquered the Incan Empire
Ferdinand Magellan

First European to circumnavigate the Earth (1519-1521)
Named the Pacific Ocean (Means Peaceful)

Treaty (1494) divides New World between Spain and Portugal
Written by Pope Alexander VI
East of Good hope to Portuguese; west to Spanish
New Rivals on the World Stage

The English, French, and Dutch began to challenge the Portuguese and Spanish around 1600.
Main goal of the expeditions were to find an oceanic Northwest Passage to Asian trade.
The impact of this competition instigated war at home and abroad, and drastic changes in the social and economic structure.

Spanish Empire
Notable Spanish Exploreres

Native populations obliterated by disease and culture replaced with European culture
Multiracial society in South America but hierarchies remained
*Mestizos and mulattoes

Less impact in Asia
*A few religious converts
*Minimal lasting influence
Asian rulers limited contact with Europeans

Impact of European's on the America's and Asia

Silk Road
They had immunity to old world disease and would stick out in native populations if they escaped
Full transcript