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Practicing Suprasegmental Features with songs

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by

Ismael Centeno Leos

on 30 July 2015

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Transcript of Practicing Suprasegmental Features with songs

In phonology, a major division is often made into segmental and suprasegmental categories. Segmental phonology analyses the speech into distinctive units, or phonemes, which have a fairly direct correspondence with phonetic segments.Suprasegmental phonology analyses those features of speech which extend over more than one segment, such as intonation […]."

(David Crystal, A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, 4th ed. Blackwell, 1997)
Teaching Suprasegmental Features with songs
A Suprasegmental, also called Prosodic Feature, in phonetics, is a speech feature such as stress, tone, or word juncture that accompanies or is added over consonants and vowels; these features are not limited to single sounds but often extend over syllables, words, or phrases.

Encyclopaedia Britannica
What are the suprasegmental features?
Without suprasegmental features superimposed on the segmental features, a continuous speech can also convey meaning but often loses the effectiveness of the message being conveyed."

(Manisha Kulshreshtha, C.P. Singh, and R.M. Sharma, "Speaker Profiling: The Study of Acoustic Characteristics Based on Phonetic Features of Hindi Dialects for Forensic Speaker Identification." 2012)

Intonation/tone (pitch)
Stress (emphasis)
Word Juncture (word or phrase boundary)
Rhythm
“We speak of rhythm when we are considering the pattern formed by the stress being perceived as peaks of prominence or beats, occurring at somewhat regular intervals of time, the recurring beats being regarded as completing a cycle or ‘measure’”
(Quirk, Randolph. A Grammar of Contemporary English)
Count the syllables:
John’s here now
John’s at home tonight
The professor’s in London this evening

Will it take a different amount of time to pronounce them, given their different length?
As a language with a tendency for ‘stress-timed’ rhythm, English often shows an identity of rhythm in sentences like the previous, when it is unaffected by other factors such as hesitation which may slow down the speaker or excitement which may speed him up.
The more syllables existing before the next beat, the faster they should be pronounced
a regular, repeated pattern of sounds or movements. Probably from
'rhein'
(to flow).
an ordered recurrent alternation of strong and weak elements in the flow of sound and silence in speech.

where can we find words said at a regular pace?


take
that
money


watch
it
burn


sing
in the
river

the
lessons
are
learned


take that money (4)
watch it burn (3)
sing in the river (5)
the lessons are learned (5)

There are
few
who'd
deny
, at what I
do
I am the
best
(14)
For my
talents
are
renowned
far and

wide
(10)
When it
comes
to
surprises
in the
moonlit night
(13)
I
excel
without
ever
even
trying
(11)
With the
slightest
little
effort
of my
ghostlike charms
(13)
I have
seen

grown
men
give out a
shriek
(9)
With the
wave
of my
hand
, and a
well-placed moan
(11)
I have
swept
the very
bravest
off their
feet
(11)

In music, Beats 1 and 3 carry more emphasis
Sentence stress, besides having certain words pronounced on the beats, displays an increase in volume and pitch on those words. However, if we did that with every stressed word, it would sound rap-like.
To avoid this, we will have more volume/pitch on every other stressed word.
The remaining stressed words will maintain some emphasis because the beats still fall on them.

There are

few
who'd
deny
, at what I
do
I am the
best
(14)
For my
talents
are
renowned
far and

wide
(10)
When it
comes
to
surprises
in the
moonlit

night
(13)
I
excel

without
ever
even
trying
(11)
With the
slightest
little
effort
of my
ghostlike

charms
(13)
I have
seen

grown
men
give out a
shriek
(9)
With the
wave
of my
hand
, and a
well-placed

moan
(11)
I have
swept
the very
bravest
off their
feet
(11)


Assimilation
Elision
Liaison
Reduction
Assimilation
This process occurs when a phonetic segment gets together with another one, thus becoming a new sound.

Elision

When we speak fast, some sounds disappear at word boundaries. The following cases are the most common to undergo elision.

1.
Initial /h/
: Up the
h
ill
2.
Final /t/,/d/
preceded by a consonant, and the next words begins with a consonant:
Nex
t
morning
Hol
d
me


3.
Final /t/
when the following word begins with /t/ or /d/.
Wha
t
do you do?

4.
/t/ of contracted
not
when it is followed by a consonant.
He doesn’
t
cheat

Liaison:
In British English, the sound /r/ is inserted if a word ends with a vowel sound and the next word begins with a vowel sound.
Fathe
r a
nd son
La
w a
nd order

Rock n' Roll
Function words
Content words
Pronouns
Auxiliary verbs
Conjunctions
Prepositions
Determiners
Nouns
Main verbs
Adjectives
Adverbs
Questions words
Negative words
In order to stress them, native speakers
make them
louder
,
longer
, or
change pitch
.
are all content words stressed?
neutral content words' stress guideline
1. Nouns and main verbs
2. Adjectives and Adverbs
3. Compound nouns: stress
the first noun
4.Phrasal Verbs: stress
the preposition
Look
out
! The yellow
school
bus will
turn
to the
right
.
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