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Practicing Suprasegmental Features with songs
Transcript of Practicing Suprasegmental Features with songs
(David Crystal, A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, 4th ed. Blackwell, 1997)
Teaching Suprasegmental Features with songs
A Suprasegmental, also called Prosodic Feature, in phonetics, is a speech feature such as stress, tone, or word juncture that accompanies or is added over consonants and vowels; these features are not limited to single sounds but often extend over syllables, words, or phrases.
What are the suprasegmental features?
Without suprasegmental features superimposed on the segmental features, a continuous speech can also convey meaning but often loses the effectiveness of the message being conveyed."
(Manisha Kulshreshtha, C.P. Singh, and R.M. Sharma, "Speaker Profiling: The Study of Acoustic Characteristics Based on Phonetic Features of Hindi Dialects for Forensic Speaker Identification." 2012)
Word Juncture (word or phrase boundary)
“We speak of rhythm when we are considering the pattern formed by the stress being perceived as peaks of prominence or beats, occurring at somewhat regular intervals of time, the recurring beats being regarded as completing a cycle or ‘measure’”
(Quirk, Randolph. A Grammar of Contemporary English)
Count the syllables:
John’s here now
John’s at home tonight
The professor’s in London this evening
Will it take a different amount of time to pronounce them, given their different length?
As a language with a tendency for ‘stress-timed’ rhythm, English often shows an identity of rhythm in sentences like the previous, when it is unaffected by other factors such as hesitation which may slow down the speaker or excitement which may speed him up.
The more syllables existing before the next beat, the faster they should be pronounced
a regular, repeated pattern of sounds or movements. Probably from
an ordered recurrent alternation of strong and weak elements in the flow of sound and silence in speech.
where can we find words said at a regular pace?
take that money (4)
watch it burn (3)
sing in the river (5)
the lessons are learned (5)
, at what I
I am the
give out a
, and a
In music, Beats 1 and 3 carry more emphasis
Sentence stress, besides having certain words pronounced on the beats, displays an increase in volume and pitch on those words. However, if we did that with every stressed word, it would sound rap-like.
To avoid this, we will have more volume/pitch on every other stressed word.
The remaining stressed words will maintain some emphasis because the beats still fall on them.
, at what I
I am the
give out a
, and a
This process occurs when a phonetic segment gets together with another one, thus becoming a new sound.
When we speak fast, some sounds disappear at word boundaries. The following cases are the most common to undergo elision.
: Up the
preceded by a consonant, and the next words begins with a consonant:
when the following word begins with /t/ or /d/.
do you do?
/t/ of contracted
when it is followed by a consonant.
In British English, the sound /r/ is inserted if a word ends with a vowel sound and the next word begins with a vowel sound.
Rock n' Roll
In order to stress them, native speakers
are all content words stressed?
neutral content words' stress guideline
1. Nouns and main verbs
2. Adjectives and Adverbs
3. Compound nouns: stress
the first noun
4.Phrasal Verbs: stress
! The yellow